Deuteronomy 5 - 7
The Ten CommandmentsDeuteronomy 5:1 And Moses summoned all Israel and said to them, “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the rules that I speak in your hearing today, and you shall learn them and be careful to do them. 2 The LORD our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. 3 Not with our fathers did the LORD make this covenant, but with us, who are all of us here alive today. 4 The LORD spoke with you face to face at the mountain, out of the midst of the fire, 5 while I stood between the LORD and you at that time, to declare to you the word of the LORD. For you were afraid because of the fire, and you did not go up into the mountain. He said:
6 “ ‘I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
7 “ ‘You shall have no other gods before me.
8 “ ‘You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 9 You shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 10 but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.
11 “ ‘You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.
12 “ ‘Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD your God commanded you. 13 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 14 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant, or your ox or your donkey or any of your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. 15 You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day. 16 “ ‘Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God commanded you, that your days may be long, and that it may go well with you in the land that the LORD your God is giving you.
17 “ ‘You shall not murder.
18 “ ‘And you shall not commit adultery.
19 “ ‘And you shall not steal.
20 “ ‘And you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
21 “ ‘And you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife. And you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, or his male servant, or his female servant, his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s.’
22 “These words the LORD spoke to all your assembly at the mountain out of the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and he added no more. And he wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me. 23 And as soon as you heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire, you came near to me, all the heads of your tribes, and your elders. 24 And you said, ‘Behold, the LORD our God has shown us his glory and greatness, and we have heard his voice out of the midst of the fire. This day we have seen God speak with man, and man still live. 25 Now therefore why should we die? For this great fire will consume us. If we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, we shall die. 26 For who is there of all flesh, that has heard the voice of the living God speaking out of the midst of fire as we have, and has still lived? 27 Go near and hear all that the LORD our God will say, and speak to us all that the LORD our God will speak to you, and we will hear and do it.’
28 “And the LORD heard your words, when you spoke to me. And the LORD said to me, ‘I have heard the words of this people, which they have spoken to you. They are right in all that they have spoken. 29 Oh that they had such a heart as this always, to fear me and to keep all my commandments, that it might go well with them and with their descendants forever! 30 Go and say to them, “Return to your tents.” 31 But you, stand here by me, and I will tell you the whole commandment and the statutes and the rules that you shall teach them, that they may do them in the land that I am giving them to possess.’ 32 You shall be careful therefore to do as the LORD your God has commanded you. You shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. 33 You shall walk in all the way that the LORD your God has commanded you, that you may live, and that it may go well with you, and that you may live long in the land that you shall possess.
The Greatest CommandmentDeuteronomy 6:1 “Now this is the commandment—the statutes and the rules—that the LORD your God commanded me to teach you, that you may do them in the land to which you are going over, to possess it, 2 that you may fear the LORD your God, you and your son and your son’s son, by keeping all his statutes and his commandments, which I command you, all the days of your life, and that your days may be long. 3 Hear therefore, O Israel, and be careful to do them, that it may go well with you, and that you may multiply greatly, as the LORD, the God of your fathers, has promised you, in a land flowing with milk and honey.
4 “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. 5 You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. 6 And these words that I command you today shall be on your heart. 7 You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise. 8 You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. 9 You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.
10 “And when the LORD your God brings you into the land that he swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give you—with great and good cities that you did not build, 11 and houses full of all good things that you did not fill, and cisterns that you did not dig, and vineyards and olive trees that you did not plant—and when you eat and are full, 12 then take care lest you forget the LORD, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. 13 It is the LORD your God you shall fear. Him you shall serve and by his name you shall swear. 14 You shall not go after other gods, the gods of the peoples who are around you— 15 for the LORD your God in your midst is a jealous God—lest the anger of the LORD your God be kindled against you, and he destroy you from off the face of the earth.
16 “You shall not put the LORD your God to the test, as you tested him at Massah. 17 You shall diligently keep the commandments of the LORD your God, and his testimonies and his statutes, which he has commanded you. 18 And you shall do what is right and good in the sight of the LORD, that it may go well with you, and that you may go in and take possession of the good land that the LORD swore to give to your fathers 19 by thrusting out all your enemies from before you, as the LORD has promised.
20 “When your son asks you in time to come, ‘What is the meaning of the testimonies and the statutes and the rules that the LORD our God has commanded you?’ 21 then you shall say to your son, ‘We were Pharaoh’s slaves in Egypt. And the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand. 22 And the LORD showed signs and wonders, great and grievous, against Egypt and against Pharaoh and all his household, before our eyes. 23 And he brought us out from there, that he might bring us in and give us the land that he swore to give to our fathers. 24 And the LORD commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us alive, as we are this day. 25 And it will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to do all this commandment before the LORD our God, as he has commanded us.’
A Chosen PeopleDeuteronomy 7:1 “When the LORD your God brings you into the land that you are entering to take possession of it, and clears away many nations before you, the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations more numerous and mightier than you, 2 and when the LORD your God gives them over to you, and you defeat them, then you must devote them to complete destruction. You shall make no covenant with them and show no mercy to them. 3 You shall not intermarry with them, giving your daughters to their sons or taking their daughters for your sons, 4 for they would turn away your sons from following me, to serve other gods. Then the anger of the LORD would be kindled against you, and he would destroy you quickly. 5 But thus shall you deal with them: you shall break down their altars and dash in pieces their pillars and chop down their Asherim and burn their carved images with fire.
6 “For you are a people holy to the LORD your God. The LORD your God has chosen you to be a people for his treasured possession, out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth. 7 It was not because you were more in number than any other people that the LORD set his love on you and chose you, for you were the fewest of all peoples, 8 but it is because the LORD loves you and is keeping the oath that he swore to your fathers, that the LORD has brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt. 9 Know therefore that the LORD your God is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love him and keep his commandments, to a thousand generations, 10 and repays to their face those who hate him, by destroying them. He will not be slack with one who hates him. He will repay him to his face. 11 You shall therefore be careful to do the commandment and the statutes and the rules that I command you today.
12 “And because you listen to these rules and keep and do them, the LORD your God will keep with you the covenant and the steadfast love that he swore to your fathers. 13 He will love you, bless you, and multiply you. He will also bless the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your ground, your grain and your wine and your oil, the increase of your herds and the young of your flock, in the land that he swore to your fathers to give you. 14 You shall be blessed above all peoples. There shall not be male or female barren among you or among your livestock. 15 And the LORD will take away from you all sickness, and none of the evil diseases of Egypt, which you knew, will he inflict on you, but he will lay them on all who hate you. 16 And you shall consume all the peoples that the LORD your God will give over to you. Your eye shall not pity them, neither shall you serve their gods, for that would be a snare to you.
17 “If you say in your heart, ‘These nations are greater than I. How can I dispossess them?’ 18 you shall not be afraid of them but you shall remember what the LORD your God did to Pharaoh and to all Egypt, 19 the great trials that your eyes saw, the signs, the wonders, the mighty hand, and the outstretched arm, by which the LORD your God brought you out. So will the LORD your God do to all the peoples of whom you are afraid. 20 Moreover, the LORD your God will send hornets among them, until those who are left and hide themselves from you are destroyed. 21 You shall not be in dread of them, for the LORD your God is in your midst, a great and awesome God. 22 The LORD your God will clear away these nations before you little by little. You may not make an end of them at once, lest the wild beasts grow too numerous for you. 23 But the LORD your God will give them over to you and throw them into great confusion, until they are destroyed. 24 And he will give their kings into your hand, and you shall make their name perish from under heaven. No one shall be able to stand against you until you have destroyed them. 25 The carved images of their gods you shall burn with fire. You shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them or take it for yourselves, lest you be ensnared by it, for it is an abomination to the LORD your God. 26 And you shall not bring an abominable thing into your house and become devoted to destruction like it. You shall utterly detest and abhor it, for it is devoted to destruction.
The Reformation Study Bible
What I'm Reading
Dietrich Bonhoeffer: “The Church and the Jewish Question”
By Victoria Barnett
In an April 1933 essay, “The Church and the Jewish Question,” Dietrich Bonhoeffer was the first to address the new problems the church faced under the Nazi dictatorship. Despite some astonishing insights, this early essay poses many problems for contemporary readers. Although he called upon the church to defend the victims of state persecution, his defense of the Jews was marked by Christian supersessionism—the Christian belief that Christianity had superseded Judaism, in history and in the eyes of God. “The history of the suffering of this people, loved and punished by God, stands under the sign of the final homecoming of the people of Israel to its God,” wrote Bonhoeffer. “And this homecoming happens in the conversion of Israel to Christ.”
But Bonhoeffer also realized that Nazism posed a very different challenge for the churches, and it was here that he broke new ground. The church was not just being called to clarify its attitudes toward Judaism and the people of Israel, he noted. The real question was how the church would judge and respond to the Nazi state’s actions against the Jews.
On this point, Bonhoeffer was explicit about the church’s obligations to fight political injustice. The church, he wrote, must fight evil in three stages: The first was to question state injustice and call the state to responsibility; the second was to help the victims of injustice, whether they were church members or not. Ultimately, however, the church might find itself called “not only to help the victims who have fallen under the wheel, but to fall into the spokes of the wheel itself” in order to halt the machinery of injustice.
The essay revealed the two levels that would shape Bonhoeffer’s thought and action throughout the Third Reich. On the one level, he saw that the totalitarian doctrine of Nazism demanded a political response from the churches. Completed in the days following the April 1, 1933, boycott of Jewish businesses, "The Church and the Jewish Question" was an explicit ethical commitment to all those persecuted by Nazism. During the same week, he and his brother Klaus met with American theologian Paul Lehmann and drafted a message to US Jewish leader Rabbi Stephen Wise. 3 Bonhoeffer clearly viewed the measures against the Jews as a civil liberties issue (some scholars believe that he was influenced here by his close friendship at Union Seminary with an African American colleague, Frank Fisher, and his direct observation of Fisher’s experiences under racism.)
On a theological level, however, Bonhoeffer still believed that the “Jewish question” would be resolved ultimately through the conversion of the Jews. He never explicitly abandoned this view, which was widespread throughout the Christian church—even in the ecumenical circles that became most active in helping the Jewish refugees of Nazism.
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Victoria J. Barnett | About Amazon says, "Victoria J. Barnett served from 2004-2014 as one of the general editors of the Dietrich Bonhoeffer Works, the English translation series of Bonhoeffer's complete works published by Fortress Press. She has lectured and written extensively about the Holocaust, particularly about the role of the German churches, and the theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer." Victoria Barnett Books:
Why History Matters To The Christian Faith
By Jonathan Morrow
Did the events recorded in the pages of Scripture really happen in history? And does it matter? The short answer is…Yes and Yes! BTW the longer answer is still yes and yes…but this is a blog, not a book
3 Reasons Why History Matters To Faith
Here are 3 reasons why history matters to the Christian faith.
(1) Biblical faith is not blind faith. Reason and evidence play an important role in the life of faith. God created us as rational beings with the capacity to weigh evidence and draw conclusions about what we are experiencing. We are called to give reasons for faith (cf. 1 Peter 3:15-16).
I for one am so encouraged that when John the Baptist struggled with doubt and sent his disciples to Jesus to inquire if he truly was the long awaited Messiah that Jesus didn’t respond with an austere warning to just have more faith.
No, Jesus reminded John to pay attention to what he had heard and what he had seen–that will give you confidence of my true identity (cf. Matthew 11:2-5). Mere belief for the sake of belief is not true Christianity.
(2) The Central claim of Christianity is that Jesus of Nazareth rose bodily from the dead. If you asked the Apostle Paul, he would agree that faith and history go together. If Jesus “has not been raised, your faith is worthless; you are still in your sins” (1 Cor. 15:17). As Nancy Pearcey observes:
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Per Amazon | Jonathan Morrow (DMin, MDiv, MA) blogs at JonathanMorrow.org. He is the author of Welcome to College: A Christ-Follower’s Guide for the Journey, Questioning the Bible: 11 Major Challenges to the Bible’s Authority, Think Christianly: Looking at the Intersection of Faith and Culture, and Is God Just a Human Invention? And Seventeen Other Questions Raised by the New Atheists (coauthored with Sean McDowell). He has contributed the chapter “Introducing Spiritual Formation” to Foundations of Spiritual Formation: A Community Approach to Becoming Like Christ and the chapter “How to Question the Bible in a Post-Christian Culture” to A New Kind of Apologist. Jonathan also contributed several articles to the Apologetics Study Bible for Students and has written for Leadership Journal Online (of Christianity Today) and The Stream. He graduated with an MDiv and an MA in philosophy of religion and ethics from the Talbot School of Theology at Biola University where he also earned a doctorate in worldview and culture. Jonathan is currently the director of cultural engagement at Impact 360 Institute where he trains high school and college students in Christian worldview, apologetics, and leadership, and he serves as an adjunct professor of apologetics at Biola University. His books have been featured on shows like FamilyLife Today, Stand to Reason, BreakPoint, In the Market with Janet Parshall, Janet Mefferd Live, Building Relationships with Dr. Gary Chapman, and Apologetics 315. He and his wife have been married for sixteen years and have three children. Connect with Jonathan online at JonathanMorrow.org. Jonathan Morrow Books:
- 1 Foundations of Spiritual Formation: A Community Approach to Becoming Like Christ
- 2 Is God Just a Human Invention? And Seventeen Other Questions Raised by the New Atheists
- 3 Welcome to College: A Christ-Follower's Guide for the Journey
- 4 Questioning the Bible: 11 Major Challenges to the Bible's Authority
- 5 Apologetics Study Bible for Students, Trade Paper
- 6 Think Christianly: Looking at the Intersection of Faith and Culture
- 7 Is the Bible Sexist, Racist, Homophobic, and Genocidal?
- 8 Welcome to College: A Christ-Follower's Guide for the Journey
- 9 Are the Gospels Full of Contradictions?
- 10 Has the Biblical Text Been Corrupted over the Centuries?
- 11 Welcome to College: A Christ-Follower's Guide for the Journey by Jonathan Morrow (2008-02-05)
Does the Earliest Gospel Proclaim the Deity of Jesus?
By Sean McDowell 2/27/2017
Scholars generally agree that Mark was the first written Gospel. As a result, critics often claim that the doctrine of the deity of Christ does not appear clearly in Mark but emerges later in the Gospel of John.
While there are certainly explicit claims to deity in John, such as when Jesus says, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am” (8:58), this critical challenge overlooks distinct proclamations of the deity of Christ throughout the Gospel of Mark.
Here is my contention: From the first chapter until the end, the Gospel of Mark proclaims that Jesus understood himself to be God. Consider six brief examples:
1. Mark 1:2-3: Mark begins his Gospel by citing a passage from Isaiah 40:3, which discusses how a messenger would come, like a voice of one crying in the wilderness, and “Prepare the way of the Lord.” In the original context, the messenger would prepare the way “for our God.” But Mark substitutes Jesus as the Lord who is coming and John the Baptist as the messenger. In other words, John the Baptist is preparing the way for God himself to come in the person of Jesus Christ.
2. Mark 2:1-10: In this passage, Jesus heals a paralytic brought to him by four friends. When Jesus first sees him, he says, “Son, your sins are forgiven.” The scribes instantly object, “He is blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone?” They believed the man was paralyzed because he had sinned against God, and yet Jesus had the audacity to claim that he could personally forgive these sins. The scribes are right that only God can forgive sins (Exodus 34:6-7; Psalms 103:3). Not even the Messiah could forgive sins. In this instance, however, Jesus bypasses the normal route of how forgiveness was received (Leviticus 4:20) and claims to speak with God’s authority. Why? Because he understood himself to be God.
Click here to go to source
- 1 Is God Just a Human Invention? And Seventeen Other Questions Raised by the New Atheists
- 2 A New Kind of Apologist: *Adopting Fresh Strategies *Addressing the Latest Issues *Engaging the Culture
- 3 The Beauty of Intolerance: Setting a Generation Free to Know Truth and Love
- 4 Same-Sex Marriage: A Thoughtful Approach to God's Design for Marriage (Thoughtful Response)
- 5 ETHIX: Being Bold in a Whatever World
- 6 More Than a Carpenter
- 7 Apologetics Study Bible for Students, Trade Paper
Answering the Galileo Myth
By Tim Barnett 10/18/2016
Last month, I was speaking at the University of Toronto on the topic Has Science Buried God? The event was held in the medical science building, so it attracted a large number of science-minded atheists and skeptics. In fact, two of the former presidents of the Secular Alliance came out to hear what I had to say.
During my talk, I pointed out that modern science was birthed out of a theistic worldview. Therefore, far from being a science stopper, it was belief in an orderly God that was the modern science starter. I like how C. S. Lewis put it. He said, “Men became scientific because they expected law in nature, and they expected law in nature because they believed in a Lawgiver.”
After my talk, we had a time of Q&A. A young woman named Julianna was the first to put up her hand. “We aren’t going to agree on much,” were the first words out of her mouth. She asked, “If theism is a science starter, then why was Galileo persecuted by the church for doing science? This sounds like the exact opposite of what you’ve said.”
As Julianna was speaking, I could see other people in the audience nodding their heads in agreement.
Just the Facts | To answer this question, I had to get all of the facts on the table. There is a very popular view that science and religion are hostile enemies. However, most historians of science regard this as a myth. The idea that religion is at war with science is called the conflict thesis. Galileo’s mistreatment by the Roman Catholic Church is usually given as a case in point, but serious historians of science do not believe that this cultural icon supports the conflict thesis.
Julianna didn’t have all the facts. She knew Galileo did good science. She also knew the Church silenced Galileo because they didn’t like his conclusion. But she was missing important details of the account, which ultimately led to a misunderstanding of the story of Galileo.
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Tim Barnett, speaker who trains Christians to think clearly about what they believe and why they believe it, full-time apologist, science teacher, and works part-time at his local church. Tim has degrees in physics and education and is working on an MA in Philosophy from Southern Evangelical Seminary. Tim lives with his wife and two children in Newmarket, Ontario, Canada.
Read The Psalms In "1" Year
Psalm 25Teach Me Your Paths
25 Of David.
16 Turn to me and be gracious to me,
for I am lonely and afflicted.
17 The troubles of my heart are enlarged;
bring me out of my distresses.
18 Consider my affliction and my trouble,
and forgive all my sins.
19 Consider how many are my foes,
and with what violent hatred they hate me.
20 Oh, guard my soul, and deliver me!
Let me not be put to shame, for I take refuge in you.
21 May integrity and uprightness preserve me,
for I wait for you.
22 Redeem Israel, O God,
out of all his troubles.
By R.C. Sproul
Why did God issue such a command? How could He have ordered the slaughter of women and children? Again we find modern attempts to soften the event. A curriculum for high school students prepared by a major church denomination in the United States explained that in light of the New Testament revelation of God’s love we know that God did not ever issue such a belligerent command. The Old Testament is merely the record of a primitive warlike group of Hebrews who tried to justify ruthless policies by attributing them to a divine sanction.
The writers of the curriculum did not believe that God ever issued such a command. It was to be a case of intrusion of mythology into the biblical record. Such interpretations overlook some vital aspects of the matter. First, there is an historical precedent that is far more severe than the conquest of Canaan—the Flood. In the Flood God destroyed the entire population of the world except for Noah and his family. The Flood was a “conquest of Canaan” on a grand scale. More important is the failure to understand the nature of sin. The assumption of the commentators is that God wiped out innocent people in Canaan. In fact there were no innocent women or children in Canaan. There were multitudes of women living there and multitudes of children. But there was none who was innocent. The conquest of Canaan was an explicit expression of God’s righteous judgment on a wicked nation. He made that point clear to Israel. He also made it clear to Israel that she was also not innocent. It was not as if God destroyed a wicked people for the sake of a righteous people. To the Canaanites God poured out justice. To the Jews God poured out mercy. He was quick to remind the Jews of that:
(Dt 9:4–6) 4 “Do not say in your heart, after the LORD your God has thrust them out before you, ‘It is because of my righteousness that the LORD has brought me in to possess this land,’ whereas it is because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD is driving them out before you. 5 Not because of your righteousness or the uprightness of your heart are you going in to possess their land, but because of the wickedness of these nations the LORD your God is driving them out from before you, and that he may confirm the word that the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.
6 “Know, therefore, that the LORD your God is not giving you this good land to possess because of your righteousness, for you are a stubborn people.
Three times in this passage God reminds Israel that it is not because of their righteousness that He will defeat the Canaanites. He wanted to make that point clear. Israel might have been tempted to jump to the conclusion that God was “on their side” because they were better than pagan nations. God’s announcement made that inference impossible.
The holiness of God is at the heart of the issue of the conquest of Canaan. It was because of His holiness that the act was ordained. On the one hand He moved to punish the insult to His holiness that was daily perpetrated by the Canaanites. On the other hand He was preparing a land and a nation for a holy purpose. God commanded that no mercy be shown toward the inhabitants of the land. He explained why in Deuteronomy 7:3-6 above in today's reading.
God did not choose Israel because Israel was already holy. He chose them to make them holy. Israel was called to be holy in two senses of the word. She was called to be different; to be set apart as a vehicle of God’s plan of redemption. She was also called to be holy in the sense of being purified. Pagan practices were to be absent from her midst. She was to be sanctified by drawing near to God. Salvation for the nations was to come out of Israel. The Promised Land was to be the breeding ground for the coming Messiah. There was no room for pagan shrines and pagan rites. God ordained a scorched-earth policy to purge the land for future salvation.
We have labored the problems of the acts of divine justice found in the Old Testament. We have tried to show that God’s justice was neither whimsical nor unwarranted. We must add that there is no real conflict between the God of the Old Testament and the God of the New Testament. It was the Old Testament God whom Christ called “Father.” It was the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob who so loved the world that He sent His only begotten Son to redeem it. It was this God whose meat and drink it was for Jesus to do His will. It was zeal for the God who slew Nadab, Abihu, and Uzzah that consumed Christ. It was the God who destroyed the world by a flood who pours the waters of His grace out to us.
The false conflict between the two testaments may be seen in the most brutal act of divine vengeance ever recorded in Scripture. It is not found in the Old Testament but in the New Testament. The most violent expression of God’s wrath and justice is seen in the cross. If ever a person had room to complain of injustice it was Jesus. He was the only innocent man ever to be punished by God. If we stagger at the wrath of God, let us stagger at the cross. Here is where our astonishment should be focused. If we have cause for moral outrage, let it be directed at Golgotha.
The cross was at once the most horrible and the most beautiful example of God’s wrath. It was the most just and the most gracious act in history. God would have been more than unjust, He would have been diabolical to punish Jesus if Jesus had not first willingly taken upon Himself the sins of the world. Once Christ had done that, once He volunteered to be the Lamb of God, laden with our sin, then He became the most grotesque and vile thing on this planet. With the concentrated load of sin He carried, He became utterly repugnant to the Father. God poured out His wrath on this obscene thing. God made Christ accursed for the sin He bore. Herein was God’s holy justice perfectly manifest. Yet it was done for us. He took what justice demanded from us. This “for us” aspect of the cross is what displays the majesty of its grace. At the same time justice and grace, wrath and mercy. It is too astonishing to fathom.
We cringe at God’s justice because its expression is so unusual. As Küng observed, His usual course of action is one of grace. Grace no longer amazes us. We have grown used to it; we take it for granted.
Perhaps the best illustration of this may be found in the teaching of Jesus:
(Lk 13:1–5) There were some present at that very time who told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. 2 And he answered them, “Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered in this way? 3 No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish. 4 Or those eighteen on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them: do you think that they were worse offenders than all the others who lived in Jerusalem? 5 No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.”.
This is one of the most difficult of the “hard sayings” of Jesus. The question is raised, “What about the people Pilate slaughtered, or the innocent people killed by the falling of the tower? Where was God in these events?” The question under discussion was: “How could God allow these things to happen?” The question is actually a thinly veiled accusation. The issue was, as always, how can God allow innocent people to suffer?
We can hear the implied protest in the question. The eighteen innocent people were walking down the street minding their own business. They were not engaged in playing “sidewalk superintendent.” They were not heckling the construction workers. They were not running away after robbing a bank. They just were “there,” at the wrong time and in the wrong place. They suffered the consequences of a fatal accident.
We might have expected Jesus to explain it like this: “I am very sorry to hear about this tragedy. These things happen and there is not much we can do about it. It was fate. An accident. As good Christians you have to learn to accept the bad with the good. Keep a stiff upper lip. Be good Stoics! I know I taught you that the One who keeps Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps. But that was a poetic statement, a bit of hyperbole. Do you realize what a difficult task it is for My Father to run the universe? It gets tiring. Every now and then He must take a nap. On the afternoon in question He was very weary and grabbed forty winks. While He was nodding the tower fell. I am sorry about that and I will report your grievance to Him. I will ask Him to be a bit more careful in the future.”
Jesus might have said: “I know I told you that My Father notices the landing of every sparrow and that He numbers the hairs on your head. Do you realize how many sparrows there are flying around? And the hairs on the heads! The afternoon the tower fell my Father was busy counting the hairs on the head of a particularly bushy-haired fellow. He was concentrating so hard on the fellow’s head that He overlooked the falling tower. I will suggest that He get His priorities in order and not spend so much time with sparrows and hair.”
That is not what Jesus said. What He said was, “Unless you repent, you too will all perish.” In effect what Jesus was saying was this: “You people are asking the wrong question. You should be asking me, ‘Why didn’t that tower fall on my head?’ ” Jesus rebuked the people for putting their amazement in the wrong place. In two decades of teaching theology I have had countless students ask me why God doesn’t save everybody. Only once did a student come to me and say, “There is something I just can’t figure out. Why did God redeem me?”
We are not really surprised that God has redeemed us. Somewhere deep inside, in the secret chambers of our hearts, we harbor the notion that God owes us His mercy. Heaven would not be quite the same if we were excluded from it. We know that we are sinners, but we are surely not as bad as we could be. There are enough redeeming features to our personalities that if God is really just He will include us in salvation. What amazes us is justice, not grace.
Our tendency to take grace for granted was driven home to me while teaching college students. I had the assignment of teaching a freshman Old Testament course to 250 students at a Christian college. On the first day of class I went over the course assignments carefully. My experience taught me that the assignment of term papers required a special degree of explanation. This course required three short papers. I explained to the students that the first paper was due on my desk by noon the last day of September. No extensions were to be given except for students who were physically confined to the infirmary or who had deaths in the immediate family. If the paper was not turned in on time, the student would receive an F for the assignment. The students acknowledged that they understood the requirements.
On the last day of September, 225 students dutifully handed in their term papers. Twenty-five students stood quaking in terror, full of remorse. They cried out, “Oh, Professor Sproul. We are so sorry. We didn’t budget our time properly. We didn’t make the proper adjustment from high school to college. Please don’t give us an F. Please, oh, please give us an extension.”
I bowed to their pleas for mercy. “All right,” I said. “I’ll give you a break this time. But, remember, the next assignment is due the last day of October.”
The students were profuse in their gratitude and filled the air with solemn promises of being on time for the next assignment. Then came the last day of October. Two hundred students came with their papers. Fifty students came empty-handed. They were nervous, but not in panic. When I asked for their papers, again they were contrite. “Oh, Professor. It was Homecoming Week. Besides it is midterm and all of our assignments are due in other classes. Please give us one more chance. We promise it will never happen again.”
Once more I relented. I said, “OK, but this is the last time. If you are late for the next paper, it will be an F. No excuses, no whining. F. Is that clear?” “Oh, yes, Professor. You are terrific.” Spontaneously the class began to sing, “We love you Prof Sproul. Oh, yes we do.” I was Mr. Popularity.
Can you guess what happened on the last day of November? Right. One hundred and fifty students came with their term papers. The other hundred strolled into the lecture hall utterly unconcerned. “Where are your term papers?” I asked. One student replied, “Oh, don’t worry, Prof, we’re working on them. We’ll have them for you in a couple of days, no sweat.”
I picked up my lethal black grade book and began taking down names. “Johnson! Do you have your paper?” “No sir,” came the reply. “F,” I said as I wrote the grade in the book. “Muldaney! Do you have your paper?” Again, “No, sir,” was the reply. I marked another F in the book. The students reacted with unmitigated fury. They howled in protest, screaming, “That’s not fair!”
I looked at one of the howling students, “Lavery! You think it’s not fair?”
“No,” he growled in response.
“I see. It’s justice you want? I seem to recall that you were late with your paper the last time. If you insist upon justice you will certainly get it. I’ll not only give you an F for this assignment, but I’ll change your last grade to the F you so richly deserved.”
The student was stunned. He had no more arguments to make. He apologized for being so hasty and was suddenly happy to settle for one F instead of two.
The students had quickly taken my mercy for granted. They assumed it. When justice suddenly fell, they were unprepared for it. It came as a shock, and they were outraged. This, after only two doses of mercy in the space of two months.
The normal activity of God involves far more mercy than I showed those students with their term papers. Old Testament history covers hundreds of years. In that time God was repeatedly merciful. When His divine judgment fell on Nadab or Uzzah, the response was shock and outrage. We have come to expect God to be merciful. From there the next step is easy: We demand it. When it is not forthcoming, our first response is anger against God, coupled with the protest: “It isn’t fair.” We soon forget that with our first sin we have forfeited all rights to the gift of life. That I am drawing breath this morning is an act of divine mercy. God owes me nothing. I owe Him everything. If He allows a tower to fall on my head this afternoon I cannot claim injustice.
One of our basic problems is the confusion of justice and mercy. We live in a world where injustices happen. They happen among people. Every one of us at some time has been a victim of injustice at the hands of another person. Everyone of us at some time has committed an injustice against another person. People treat each other unfairly. One thing is certain: No matter how much injustice I have suffered from the hands of men, I have never suffered the slightest injustice from the hand of God.
Suppose a person falsely accuses me of stealing money. Charges are brought against me and I am arrested and sent to prison. Touching my relationship to men, I have been a victim of gross injustice. I have every right to cry out to God and plead for vindication in this world. I can complain about being falsely persecuted. God is angry with men for unjustly putting me in prison. God promises to vindicate me from this injustice some day. Injustice is real and it happens every day in this world.
The injustices we suffer are all of a horizontal sort. They happen between actors in this world. Yet standing over and above this world is the Great Judge of all. My relationship to Him is vertical. In terms of that vertical relationship I never suffer an injustice. Though men may mistreat me, God never does. That God allows a human being to treat me unjustly is just of God. While I may complain to God about the human, horizontal injustice I have suffered, I cannot rise up and accuse God of committing a vertical injustice by allowing the human injustice to befall me. God would be perfectly just to allow me to be thrown in prison for life for a crime I didn’t commit. I may be innocent before men, but I am guilty before God.
We often blame God for the injustices done to us and harbor in our souls the bitter feeling that God has not been fair toward us. Even if we recognize that He is gracious we think that He has not been gracious enough. We deserve more grace.
Please read that last sentence again: We deserve more grace. What is wrong with that sentence? Grammatically it is fine. It has a subject, a verb, and a direct object. There is no need for the editor’s red pencil in that regard. But there is something seriously wrong with the content, with the meaning of the sentence.
It is impossible for anyone, anywhere, anytime to deserve grace. Grace by definition is undeserved. As soon as we talk about deserving something, we are no longer talking about grace; we are talking about justice. Only justice can be deserved. God is never obligated to be merciful. Mercy and grace must be voluntary or they are no longer mercy and grace. God never “owes” grace. He reminds us more than once. “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy.” This is the divine prerogative. God reserves for Himself the supreme right of executive clemency.
Suppose ten people sin and sin equally. Suppose God punishes five of them and is merciful to the other five. Is this injustice? No! In this situation five people get justice and five get mercy. No one gets injustice. What we tend to assume is this: If God is merciful to five He must be equally merciful to the other five. Why? He is never obligated to be merciful. If He is merciful to nine of the ten, the tenth cannot complain that he is a victim of injustice. God never owes mercy. God is not obliged to treat all men equally. Maybe I’d better say that again. God is never obliged to treat all men equally. If He were ever unjust to us, we would have reason to complain. But simply because He grants mercy to my neighbor gives me no claim on His mercy. Again we must remember that mercy is always voluntary. “I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy.”
There are only two things I ever receive from God—justice or mercy. I never receive injustice from His hand. We may request that God help us get justice at the hands of men, but we would be utterly foolish to ever ask Him for justice from Himself. I warn my students: “Don’t ever ask God for justice—you might get it.”
It is the confusion between justice and mercy that makes us shrink in horror when we read the stories of Nadab, Abihu, and Uzzah. When God’s justice falls, we are offended because we think God owes perpetual mercy. We must not take His grace for granted. We must never lose our capacity to be amazed by grace. We sing the song, “Amazing Justice.” Our lyrics tend to go like this:
Amazing Justice, cruel and sharp
That wounds a saint like me:
I’m so darn good it makes no sense—
The tower fell on me!
I remember preaching a “practice sermon” in preaching class in seminary. In my sermon I was extolling the marvels of God’s grace. Like the hymn says, I spoke of “God’s grace, infinite grace.…”
At the end of my sermon the professor had a question for me. “Mr. Sproul,” he said, “where did you ever get the idea that God’s grace is infinite? Is there absolutely no limit to His grace?” As soon as he asked that question I knew I was in trouble. I could quote him chapter and verse of the hymn that taught me that, but somehow I couldn’t come up with a single word from Holy Scripture that taught God’s grace is infinite.
The reason I couldn’t find any Scripture to support it is because there is none. God’s grace is not infinite. God is infinite and God is gracious. We experience the grace of an infinite God, but grace is not infinite. God sets limits to His patience and forbearance. He warns us over and over again that someday the ax will fall and His judgment will be poured out.
Since it is our tendency to take grace for granted, my guess is that God found it necessary from time to time to remind Israel that grace must never be assumed. On rare but dramatic occasions He showed the dreadful power of His justice. He killed Nadab and Abihu. He killed Uzzah. He commanded the slaughter of the Canaanites. It is like He was saying, “Be careful. While you enjoy the benefits of my grace, don’t forget my justice. Don’t forget the gravity of sin. Remember that I am holy.”
Robert Charles Sproul, 2/13/1939 – 12/14/2017 was an American theologian, author, and ordained pastor in the Presbyterian Church in America. Dr. R.C. Sproul was founder and chairman of Ligonier Ministries, an international Christian education and discipleship organization located near Orlando, Fla. He was also copastor of Saint Andrew’s Chapel in Sanford, Fla., chancellor of Reformation Bible College, and executive editor of Tabletalk magazine. Dr. Sproul has contributed dozens of articles to national evangelical publications, has spoken at conferences, churches, and schools around the world, and has written more than one hundred books. He also served as general editor of the Reformation Study Bible.R.C. Sproul Books | Go to Books Page
By Gleason Archer Jr.
13 | Archaeological Evidence for the Antiquity of the Pentateuch
Introduction: Antiquity of the Pentateuch
IT WAS ONLY NATURAL that the Wellhausen Hypothesis should base its judgments concerning the historicity of the Old Testament record upon the data of archaeology then available in the nineteenth century. Yet those data were regrettably meager during the formative period of the Documentary Theory, and it was possible on the basis of the ignorance which then prevailed to discount many statements in Scripture which had not yet found archaeological confirmation.
For example, at that time it was assumed that writing was relatively unknown in Palestine during the Mosaic period, and that no part of the Pentateuch could, therefore, have found, for example, a written form until the tenth or ninth centuries B.C. The references to the Hittites, for example, were treated with incredulity and condemned as mere fiction on the part of the late authors of the Torah; the same was true of the Horites and even the historicity of Sargon II (722–705 B.C.), since no extrabiblical references to him had yet been discovered. The existence of such a king as Belshazzar (in the book of Daniel ) was ruled out of possibility because no Greek author had mentioned him, and the biblical record could be presumed to be wrong. But since the days of Hupfeld, Graf, and Kuenen, archaeological discovery has confirmed the use of alphabetic writing in the Canaanite - speaking cultures before 1500 B.C., and has contributed large numbers of documents to demonstrate the existence and major importance of both the Hittites and Horites (or Hurrians, as they are more commonly known), and also cuneiform tablets containing the name of Belshazzar, as viceroy under Nabonidus.
Thus it has come about that in case after case after case where alleged historical inaccuracy was pointed to as proof of late and spurious authorship of the biblical documents, the Hebrew record has been vindicated by the results of recent excavation, and the condemnatory judgments of the Documentarian Theorists have been proved without foundation. W. E Albright, esteemed the foremost archaeologist of his generation, and a man who was himself brought up on the Wellhausen theory, had this to say in 1941: “Archaeological and inscriptional data have established the historicity of innumerable passages and statements of the Old Testament; the number of such cases is many times greater than those where the reverse has been proved or has been made probable.” Further on in the same article he said, “Wellhausen still ranks in our eyes as the greatest Biblical scholar of the nineteenth century. But his standpoint is antiquated and his picture of the early evolution of Israel is sadly distorted.” A more recent author, John Elder, states: “It is not too much to say that it was the rise of the science of archaeology that broke the deadlock between historians and the orthodox Christian. Little by little, one city after another, one civilization after another, one culture after another, whose memories were enshrined only in the Bible, were restored to their proper places in ancient history by the studies of archaeologists.… Contemporary records of Biblical events have been unearthed and the uniqueness of Biblical revelation has been emphasized by contrast and comparison to newly discovered religions of ancient peoples. Nowhere has archaeological discovery refuted the Bible as history.” J. A. Thompson affirms, “Finally, it is perfectly true to say that biblical archaeology has done a great deal to correct the impression that was abroad at the close of the last century and in the early part of this century, that Biblical history was of doubtful trustworthiness in many places. If one impression stands out more clearly than another today, it is that on all hands the over-all historicity of the Old Testament tradition is admitted.”
World Empires Of The Bible
Assyria 740 - 612 B.C.
Babylonia 612 - 539 B.C.
Medo-Persia 539 - 331 B.C.
Macedonia 332 - 301 B.C.
Diadochi 301 - 63 B.C.
Rome 189 B.C. - A.D. 476
The Eastern Roman Empire continued until A.D. 1453
By James Orr 1907
V. DIFFICULTIES OF THE CRITICAL THEORY OF INSTITUTIONS (cont)
2. What applies to the critical explanation of the distinction of priests and Levites applies with not less force to the explanations offered of other institutions, whose pre-exilic existence is called in question. We take a few of the more typical instances.
(1) There are the three great feasts of the nation — passover, or unleavened bread, the feast of weeks, and the feast of tabernacles: these are robbed of their historical reference, and declared to be mere agricultural observances, locally observed till the age of Josiah, when Deuteronomy centralised them. The ceremonial character, in particular, stamped on them by the Priestly Code is held to be wholly post-exilian. But no tenable account is given of this sudden rise of agricultural festivals into historical significance, and of their unquestioned acceptance as feasts having this historical meaning, in the age of Ezra. Special assault is made upon the Biblical account of the institution of the passover, and of its association with the Exodus. Yet we have seen that the law in Ex. 12:3 ff. is unintelligible, as framed for a domestic observance of the passover, unless it is placed before the centralising ordinance in Deuteronomy; while the latter by its use of this name pesach (passover), its reference to the month Abib (chap. 16:1 ), and its distinct historical allusions (vers. 3, 6 ), as clearly presupposes the older law. The three feasts appear from the first, in all the Codes, as national (not local) feasts; and in every instance, with but one exception, the passover, or feast of unleavened bread, is directly connected with the Exodus. That one exception, strange to say, is the most instructive of all as a refutation of the critical theory. It is the priestly law of Lev. 23:4 ff.; yet it alone (1), as said, lacks a reference to the Exodus; (2) contains the regulation about presenting a sheaf of first-fruits which gives the feast any agricultural character it has; while (3) neither in it, nor in the law for passover offerings in Num. 28:16 ff., is mention made even of the paschal lamb. So that we have this curious result, in contradiction of the critical theory, that the historical reference comes in at the beginning, and the agricultural at the end of the development!
How, now, on the other hand, do the critics explain the name “passover” and the historical reference attached to this feast? Only, it must be replied, by again arbitrarily blotting out the history we have, and indulging in conjectures of their own, about which there is no agreement. Wellhausen, e.g., will have it that the Exodus was, in the tradition, connected with the demand to be permitted to observe a spring festival, a chief feature of which was the offering of firstlings. Cause and effect became inverted, and instead of the festival being the occasion of the Exodus, it came to be regarded as occasioned by it. Out of this grew — how we are not told — the story of the slaying of the firstborn in Egypt. Even so the meaning of the name “passover” is allowed to be “not clear.” As the history stands, both the passover rite, and the dwelling in booths which gives the feast of tabernacles its name (Succoth), find their appropriate explanation; but it is impossible to conceive how, in the full light of history, these meanings could come to be imported into them at so late an age as Ezra’s.
The notices of the feasts in the history are, it is allowed, scant. But they are more numerous than Wellhausen admits, and, such as they are, unless again we arbitrarily reject the narratives, they contradict his theory, and are in keeping with the law. At the head of the series stands the observance of the passover in Ex. 12, and the wilderness observance in Num. 9:4, 5, which gives rise to a supplementary ordinance. Then comes the observance of the passover under Joshua at Gilgal in Josh. 5:10, 11. Passing the yearly feast of Jehovah at Shiloh (tabernacles? Judg. 21:19; 1 Sam. 1:3, 7, 21 ), we have a general reference to the three feasts in Solomon’s reign ( 1 Kings 9:25; cf. 2 Chron. 8:13 ), and special allusions to the feast of tabernacles in 1 Kings 8:2, 65, 66; 12:32, 33. Hosea makes allusion to the dwelling in tents at this feast (chap. 12:9 ). The Chronicler records a great observance of the passover under Hezekiah in a narrative too detailed and circumstantial to be the work of invention. Then we come to the great passover of Josiah, of which it is said that the like of it had not been held “from the days of the Judges that judged Israel.” The returned exiles under Zerubbabel observed both the feast of tabernacles and the passover according to known laws, and the reading of the law by Ezra was the occasion of another great observance of the feast of tabernacles, with special reference to the requirements of Lev. 23. Here again it is declared that such a feast had not been observed “since the days of Joshua the son of Nun.” It is a straining of these passages in Kings and Nehemiah, and a contradiction of their own testimony, to make them affirm that there had been no observance of the feasts named in earlier times; the allusion is evidently to the enthusiasm, spontaneity, and scrupulous attention to the law, with which the feasts were observed — in the latter case with special regard to the “booths.”
(2) As a second example, we may glance at the case of the sin- and trespass - offerings, of which it is alleged that the first mention is in Ezekiel. Sin- and trespass-offerings were in their nature occasional, and we might readily be tempted to suppose that they had fallen largely into disuse in pre-exilic times. Yet even this would be a rash inference from silence. It is to be observed that Ezekiel writes of these offerings, not as something new, but as quite familiar to his readers; they are found also in the Law of Holiness, which, we have seen, precedes Ezekiel, and is, from all indications, very old. Nor is it true that no earlier trace of them exists. Ps. 40 cannot be put later than the exile, and is probably earlier, yet in it the sin - offering is spoken of as a customary sacrifice (ver. 6 ). Isa. 53:10 declares that the soul of Jehovah’s Righteous Servant is made a “guilt - (trespass -) offering.” Kuenen allows that the “sin-offering” is not unknown to Hosea (chap. 4:8 ), though he fails to find a distinction between the sin- and the trespass - offering. Yet in 2 Kings 12:16 a clear reference is made to “trespass-money” and “sin-money,” which, as Kuenen again grants, must have had a certain connection with the Levitical offerings. Even if it be supposed that a custom had grown up of commutation of the sacrifices by “pecuniary fines,” the sacrifices and the law requiring them are still presupposed. The idea of a trespass-offering was present in some form to the minds of the Philistines in the time of the Judges: a fact which shows it to be old. No proper explanation is given of the when, where, or how, of the introduction of these sacrifices, on the critical theory.
(3) One of the most daring strokes of the Wellhausen criticism is the denial of the existence of the incense - offering in pre-exilic times, and, as involved in this, the denial of an altar of incense, not simply in the supposed imaginary tabernacle, but even in the Solomonic temple. Wellhausen goes still further, and, in face of the express statements in 1 Macc. 1:21 ff.; 4:49, that the golden altar and golden table were both carried away by Antiochus Epiphanes, and renewed at the feast of the dedication, casts doubt on the existence of an altar of incense even in the second temple. The chief ground for these denials is the fact that, in Exodus, the command for the making of the altar of incense does not appear where we might expect it, in chaps. 25–29, but at the commencement of chap. 30 How arbitrary the procedure is, is shown by the clear testimony of at least four passages of the history ( 1 Kings 6:20, 22; 7:48; 9:25; cf. 2 Chron. 4:19 ) to the construction and presence of the golden altar in the temple of Solomon.
The critical theory of the tithe-laws, of the Levitical cities as transformations of the bamoth, and other matters, have already been referred to.
3. In conducting the above argument, we have laid little stress on incidental words or allusions in either the historical or the prophetical books which might seem to indicate acquaintance with the Levitical legislation. These allusions, though not decisive in themselves, are more numerous than the critics are wont to allow, and, when a pre-exilian origin of Levitical laws is independently rendered probable, acquire enhanced importance. Joel, e.g., which used to be regarded as one of the earliest of the prophetical books, has many allusions which suggest the ritual code — the sanctuary and its altar in Zion, priests, blowing of trumpets, fasts, solemn assemblies, meal and drink-offerings, etc. — and is now, largely for this very reason, regarded by the Wellhausen school as post-exilian. Yet we question if the allusions in Joel are more definite than those of the earlier prophets, or would, on critical principles, suffice any more than these, to establish a knowledge of the written law, which is yet allowed to have been in existence when he wrote. Not to dwell on Amos (e.g., chap. 5:21, 22 ), we may cite such a passage as Isa. 1:13, 14: “Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto Me; new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, — I cannot away with iniquity and the solemn meeting. Your new moons and your appointed feasts My soul hateth,” etc. (cf. ver. 11; chaps. 4:5; 33:20 — “the city of our solemnities”). The vocabulary of this passage — “assembly” (convocation), “solemn meeting,” “appointed feasts,” etc. — and the allusions to festivals and sacrifices, are entirely suggestive of the Levitical law (cf. Lev. 23; Num. 28; cf. Deut. 16:8 ). Reference was before made to the allusions in the prophets to a cycle of feasts, of which little or nothing is said in the history. Thus, Isa. 29:1: “Let the feasts come round”; or Nah. 1:15: “Keep thy feasts, O Judah, perform thy vows.” It cannot be overlooked, further, that the prophets constantly assume the people to be in possession of “statutes,” or “statutes and judgments” — i.e., of fixed laws — evidently of considerable extent, and, we must suppose, written. That such “statutes” were covered by the word torah (instruction, law) we see no reason to doubt. Here comes in that much - debated passage, Hos. 8:12: “Though I write for him my law in ten thousand precepts (R.V. marg., “wrote for him the ten thousand things of my law”), they are counted as a strange thing.” If this does not point to written law of considerable compass, it is difficult to know what form of words would. Smend, at an earlier stage, found, as was before shown, Hosea and Amos impregnated with Levitismus (e.g., Hos. 9:3–5 ). It may be observed that Hosea has also, in the view of many, unmistakable assonances with Deuteronomy. When to these indications in the prophets we add what was before said of allusions in the historical books to ark, tabernacle, Aaronic priesthood, high priest, ephod, shewbread, etc., and of the evidence which these books afford of a knowledge of festivals, of sacrifices (burnt-offerings, peace-offerings, meal-offerings, drink-offerings, probably sin-offerings as well), of ritual of worship, of laws of purity, of clean and unclean food, of leprosy, of consanguinity, prohibitions of eating blood, etc. — we may begin to feel, with Dillmann, that the allusions in history and prophecy are well-nigh as numerous as we had any right to expect.
Of the law itself, we would only say in closing, in opposition to the purely secular, and often unworthy, views of its origin we have been discussing, that it is pervaded by a spirit of holiness, and, in its aim and structure, is as unique as all the other parts of the Jewish religion. Whatever the formal resemblances, the Levitical law had nothing essentially in common with heathen ritual, but rested on a basis of its own. No heathen religion had a system based on the idea of the holiness of God, and governed by the design of restoring and maintaining fellowship with God, and the peace of conscience of the worshipper, by the grace of atonement. For this was the real nature of the Levitical system. It was designed in all its parts to impress on the mind of the worshipper a sense of the separation which sin had put between him and the holy God, and provided a means by which the people, notwithstanding their sin, could have access to God, and enjoy His favour. There is nothing in this, if the Bible’s own view of the course of revelation is accepted, incompatible with its early origin. It is one of the groundless assumptions of the newer theory that the idea of expiation by sacrifice was foreign to the pre-exilian, and earlier Israelitish, mind. One sufficient proof to the contrary is furnished in 1 Sam. 3:14: “Therefore I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house shall not be purged (“atoned for,” the Levitical word) with sacrifice nor offering for ever.”
A Tale of Two Brothers
By Sinclair Ferguson
The antinomian prodigal when awakened was tempted to legalism: “I will go and be a slave in my father’s house and thus perhaps gain grace in his eyes.” But he was bathed in his father’s grace and set free to live as an obedient son. Come, everyone who thirsts,
The legalistic older brother never tasted his father’s grace. Because of his legalism he had never been able to enjoy the privileges of the father’s house.
Between them stood the father offering free grace to both, without prior qualifications in either. Had the older brother embraced his father, he would have found grace that would make every duty a delight and dissolve the hardness of his servile heart. Had that been the case, his once antinomian brother would surely have felt free to come out to him as his father had done, and say: “Isn’t the grace we have been shown and given simply amazing? Let us forevermore live in obedience to every wish of our gracious father!” And arm in arm they could have gone in to dance at the party, sons and brothers together, a glorious testimony to the father’s love.
But it was not so.
It is still, alas, not so.
Yet this is still true:
There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death. For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. (Rom. 8:1–4)
And the invitation still stands:
come to the waters;
and he who has no money,
come, buy and eat!
Come, buy wine and milk
without money and without price.
Why do you spend your money for that which is not bread,
and your labor for that which does not satisfy?
Listen diligently to me, and eat what is good,
and delight yourselves in rich food. (Isa. 55:1–2)
From The Whole Christ: Legalism, Antinomianism, and Gospel Assurance
Dr. Sinclair B. Ferguson is a Ligonier teaching fellow and distinguished visiting professor of systematic theology at Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia. Sinclair Ferguson Books | Go to Books Page
Come, everyone who thirsts,
The Pilgrim's Progress From This World To That Which Is To Come;
Delivered Under The Similitude Of A Dream (Part 2)
By John Bunyan 1678
THE FOURTH STAGEMER. I was a dreaming that I sat all alone in a solitary place, and was bemoaning of the hardness of my heart. Now I had not sat there long but methought many were gathered about me to see me, and to hear what it was that I said. So they hearkened, and I went on bemoaning the hardness of my heart. At this, some of them laughed at me, some called me fool, and some began to thrust me about. With that, methought I looked up and saw one coming with wings towards me. So he came directly to me, and said, Mercy, what aileth thee? Now when he had heard me make my complaint, he said, Peace be to thee; he also wiped my eyes with his handkerchief, and clad me in silver and gold.
Ezekiel 16:8–11 8 “When I passed by you again and saw you, behold, you were at the age for love, and I spread the corner of my garment over you and covered your nakedness; I made my vow to you and entered into a covenant with you, declares the Lord GOD, and you became mine. 9 Then I bathed you with water and washed off your blood from you and anointed you with oil. 10 I clothed you also with embroidered cloth and shod you with fine leather. I wrapped you in fine linen and covered you with silk. 11 And I adorned you with ornaments and put bracelets on your wrists and a chain on your neck. ESV
He put a chain about my neck, and ear-rings in mine ears, and a beautiful crown upon my head. Then he took me by the hand, and said, Mercy, come after me. So he went up, and I followed till we came at a golden gate. Then he knocked; and when they within had opened, the man went in, and I followed him up to a throne, upon which one sat; and he said to me, Welcome, daughter. The place looked bright and twinkling, like the stars, or rather like the sun, and I thought that I saw your husband there; so I awoke from my dream. But did I laugh?
CHR. Laugh! aye, and well you might to see yourself so well. For you must give me leave to tell you that it was a good dream; and that, as you have begun to find the first part true, so you shall find the second at last. “God speaks once, yea, twice, yet man perceiveth it not; in a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed.”
Job 33:14-15 For God speaks in one way,
and in two, though man does not perceive it.
15 In a dream, in a vision of the night,
when deep sleep falls on men,
while they slumber on their beds, ESV
We need not, when abed, to lie awake to talk with God; he can visit us while we sleep, and cause us then to hear his voice. Our heart oftentimes wakes when we sleep, and God can speak to that, either by words, by proverbs, by signs and similitudes, as well as if one was awake.
MER. Well, I am glad of my dream; for I hope ere long to see it fulfilled, to the making me laugh again.
CHR. I think it is now high time to rise, and to know what we must do.
MER. Pray, if they invite us to stay a while, let us willingly accept of the proffer. I am the more willing to stay a while here, to grow better acquainted with these maids: methinks Prudence, Piety, and Charity, have very comely and sober countenances.
CHR. We shall see what they will do.
So when they were up and ready, they came down, and they asked one another of their rest, and if it was comfortable or not.
MER. Very good, said Mercy: it was one of the best night’s lodgings that ever I had in my life.
Then said Prudence and Piety, If you will be persuaded to stay here a while, you shall have what the house will afford.
CHAR. Aye, and that with a very good will, said Charity. So they consented, and stayed there about a month or above, and became very profitable one to another. And because Prudence would see how Christiana had brought up her children, she asked leave of her to catechise them. So she gave her free consent. Then she began with her youngest, whose name was James.
PRUD. And she said, Come, James, canst thou tell me who made thee?
JAMES. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.
PRUD. Good boy. And canst thou tell who saved thee?
JAMES. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.
PRUD. Good boy still. But how doth God the Father save thee?
JAMES. By his grace.
PRUD. How doth God the Son save thee?
JAMES. By his righteousness, death and blood, and life.
PRUD. And how doth God the Holy Ghost save thee?
JAMES. By his illumination, by his renovation, and by his preservation.
Then said Prudence to Christiana, You are to be commended for thus bringing up your children. I suppose I need not ask the rest these questions, since the youngest of them can answer them so well. I will therefore now apply myself to the next youngest.
PRUD. Then she said, Come, Joseph, (for his name was Joseph,) will you let me catechise you?
JOSEPH. With all my heart.
PRUD. What is man?
JOSEPH. A reasonable creature, so made by God, as my brother said.
PRUD. What is supposed by this word, saved?
JOSEPH. That man, by sin, has brought himself into a state of captivity and misery.
PRUD. What is supposed by his being saved by the Trinity?
JOSEPH. That sin is so great and mighty a tyrant that none can pull us out of its clutches but God; and that God is so good and loving to man, as to pull him indeed out of this miserable state.
PRUD. What is God’s design in saving poor men?
JOSEPH. The glorifying of his name, of his grace, and justice, etc., and the everlasting happiness of his creature.
PRUD. Who are they that will be saved?
JOSEPH. They that accept of his salvation.
PRUD. Good boy, Joseph; thy mother hath taught thee well, and thou hast hearkened unto what she has said unto thee.
Then said Prudence to Samuel, who was the eldest but one,
PRUD. Come, Samuel, are you willing that I should catechise you?
SAM. Yes, forsooth, if you please.
PRUD. What is heaven?
SAM. A place and state most blessed, because God dwelleth there.
PRUD. What is hell?
SAM. A place and state most woful, because it is the dwelling-place of sin, the devil, and death.
PRUD. Why wouldst thou go to heaven?
SAM. That I may see God, and serve him without weariness; that I may see Christ, and love him everlastingly; that I may have that fullness of the Holy Spirit in me which I can by no means here enjoy.
PRUD. A very good boy, and one that has learned well.
Then she addressed herself to the eldest, whose name was Matthew; and she said to him, Come, Matthew, shall I also catechise you?
MATT. With a very good will.
PRUD. I ask then, if there was ever any thing that had a being antecedent to or before God?
MATT. No, for God is eternal; nor is there any thing, excepting himself, that had a being until the beginning of the first day. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is.
PRUD. What do you think of the Bible?
MATT. It is the holy word of God.
PRUD. Is there nothing written therein but what you understand?
MATT. Yes, a great deal.
PRUD. What do you do when you meet with places therein that you do not understand?
MATT. I think God is wiser than I. I pray also that he will please to let me know all therein that he knows will be for my good.
PRUD. How believe you as touching the resurrection of the dead?
MATT. I believe they shall rise the same that was buried; the same in nature, though not in corruption. And I believe this upon a double account: first, because God has promised it; secondly, because he is able to perform it.
Then said Prudence to the boys, You must still hearken to your mother; for she can teach you more. You must also diligently give ear to what good talk you shall hear from others: for your sakes do they speak good things. Observe also, and that with carefulness, what the heavens and the earth do teach you; but especially be much in the meditation of that book which was the cause of your father’s becoming a pilgrim. I, for my part, my children, will teach you what I can while you are here, and shall be glad if you will ask me questions that tend to godly edifying.
Now by that these pilgrim’s had been at this place a week, Mercy had a visitor that pretended some good-will unto her, and his name was Mr. Brisk; a man of some breeding, and that pretended to religion, but a man that stuck very close to the world. So he came once or twice, or more, to Mercy, and offered love unto her. Now Mercy was of a fair countenance, and therefore the more alluring.
Her mind also was to be always busying of herself in doing; for when she had nothing to do for herself, she would be making hose and garments for others, and would bestow them upon those that had need. And Mr. Brisk not knowing where or how she disposed of what she made, seemed to be greatly taken, for that he found her never idle. I will warrant her a good housewife, quoth he to himself.
Mercy then revealed the business to the maidens that were of the house, and inquired of them concerning him, for they did know him better than she. So they told her that he was a very busy young man, and one who pretended to religion, but was, as they feared, a stranger to the power of that which is good.
Nay then, said Mercy, I will look no more on him; for I purpose never to have a clog to my soul.
Prudence then replied, that there needed no matter of great discouragement to be given to him; her continuing so as she had begun to do for the poor, would quickly cool his courage.
Pilgrim's Progress (Illustrated): Updated, Modern English. More than 100 Illustrations.
The Continual Burnt Offering
By H.A. Ironside - 1941
1 Kings 3:5 At Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night, and God said, “Ask what I shall give you.” ESVAsk what.
2 Chronicles 1:7 In that night God appeared to Solomon, and said to him, “Ask what I shall give you.” 8 And Solomon said to God, “You have shown great and steadfast love to David my father, and have made me king in his place. 9 O LORD God, let your word to David my father be now fulfilled, for you have made me king over a people as numerous as the dust of the earth. 10 Give me now wisdom and knowledge to go out and come in before this people, for who can govern this people of yours, which is so great?” 11 God answered Solomon, “Because this was in your heart, and you have not asked for possessions, wealth, honor, or the life of those who hate you, and have not even asked for long life, but have asked for wisdom and knowledge for yourself that you may govern my people over whom I have made you king, 12 wisdom and knowledge are granted to you. I will also give you riches, possessions, and honor, such as none of the kings had who were before you, and none after you shall have the like.”
Matthew 7:7 “Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. 8 For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened.
Mark 10:36 And he said to them, “What do you want me to do for you?”
Mark 10:38 Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?” 39 And they said to him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you will drink, and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized, 40 but to sit at my right hand or at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.” 41 And when the ten heard it, they began to be indignant at James and John. 42 And Jesus called them to him and said to them, “You know that those who are considered rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 43 But it shall not be so among you. But whoever would be great among you must be your servant, 44 and whoever would be first among you must be slave of all. 45 For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
46 And they came to Jericho. And as he was leaving Jericho with his disciples and a great crowd, Bartimaeus, a blind beggar, the son of Timaeus, was sitting by the roadside. 47 And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out and say, “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!” 48 And many rebuked him, telling him to be silent. But he cried out all the more, “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 49 And Jesus stopped and said, “Call him.” And they called the blind man, saying to him, “Take heart. Get up; he is calling you.” 50 And throwing off his cloak, he sprang up and came to Jesus. 51 And Jesus said to him, “What do you want me to do for you?” And the blind man said to him, “Rabbi, let me recover my sight.”
Mark 11:24 Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours.
John 14:13 Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14 If you ask me anything in my name, I will do it.
John 15:16 You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide, so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you.
John 16:23 In that day you will ask nothing of me. Truly, truly, I say to you, whatever you ask of the Father in my name, he will give it to you. 24 Until now you have asked nothing in my name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full.
James 1:5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. 6 But let him ask in faith, with no doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind.
1 John 5:14 And this is the confidence that we have toward him, that if we ask anything according to his will he hears us. 15 And if we know that he hears us in whatever we ask, we know that we have the requests that we have asked of him. ESV
Does He not know far better than we do what is good for us? Is it not then needless to come to Him with our requests? He who so reasons overlooks the fact that it is God Himself who bids us ask and who tells us, “Ye have not because ye ask not.” It is clear from this scripture that He has blessings prepared for us which He loves to give, but which will be withheld until we request them. He would have us realize that we have to do with a living God. When we go to Him in prayer and ask Him to give what is on our hearts — of which others know nothing — and then He opens His hand and gives so freely and so generously we have a positive demonstration that prayer Is more than a formal religious exercise. We have reached the ear of God and He has answered in His love and wisdom.
My Father, this I ask of Thee;
Knowing that Thou wilt grant the plea—
For this, and only this, I pray.
Strength for today — just for today
I do not ask a lifted load,
Nor for a smooth and thornless road;
Simply for strength enough to bear
Life’s daily burdens anywhere.
--- E. E. Rexford
The Continual Burnt Offering: Daily Meditations on the Word of God
Devotionals, notes, poetry and more
Secrets of self-control (2)
3/1/2018 Bob Gass
‘With the Lord’s help, [you] will stand.’
(Ro 14:4) Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand. ESV
Put your past behind you. ‘[This] one thing I do: forgetting what is behind and straining towards what is ahead, I press on towards the goal’ (Philippians 3:13-14 NIVUK 2011 Edition). This Scripture exposes a misconception that will keep you from gaining self-control: once a failure, always a failure! You may say, ‘Oh, I tried to quit my bad habit. In fact, I have tried over and over. I guess I’ll never be able to get control of this.’ That is a misconception. Paul says, ‘We get knocked down, but we get up again and keep going’ (2 Corinthians 4:9 TLB). Have you watched a baby learning to walk? They fall down a lot, but they don’t stay down. They keep on trying, and ultimately they succeed. How far do you think they’d get if they just gave up and said, ‘Some people were meant to be walkers, and some were not’? Failure in the past does not mean that you will never be able to change. But focusing on past failures, however, does guarantee their repetition. It is like driving a car while looking in the rear-view mirror. You’re going to collide with what’s ahead of you. You have to put your past behind you. No one had more failures than Thomas Edison. Most of us would have given up, but not him. He once said, ‘Don’t call it a failure, call it an education! Now I know what doesn’t work!’ When you realise sin doesn’t work, it’s a defining moment and your springboard to victory. A winner is simply someone who gets back up one more time than they fall down. So, the word for you today is: ‘With the Lord’s help, [you] will stand.’
UCB The Word For Today
by Bill Federer
Before the U.S. Constitution was written, what was the government in the United States? It was the Articles of Confederation, ratified this day, March 1st, 1781. Signed by such statesmen as Ben Franklin and Roger Sherman, it was an attempt to loosely knit the thirteen States together. The Articles of Confederation declared: “The… states hereby… enter into a… league of friendship… to assist each other, against… attacks made upon them… on account of religion, sovereignty, [and] trade… It has pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the Legislatures… to ratify the said Articles.”
Thomas R. Kelly
An invariable element in the experience of Now is that of unspeakable and exquisite joy, peace, serene release. A new song is put into our mouths. No old song ever has caught the glory and the gladness of this Now; no former Now can be drawn upon to give perfect voice to this Now. The well-springs of Life are bubbling up anew each moment. When the angel is troubling the waters, it is no time to stand on the bank and recite past wonders. But the main point is not that a new song is put into our mouths; the point is that a new song is put into our mouths. We sing, yet not we, but the Eternal sings in us. It seems to me, in the experience of plateau living in the Divine Presence, that the Everlasting is the singer, and not we ourselves, that the joy we know in the Presence is not our little private subjective joy, pocketed away from other men, a private gift from a benevolent and gracious God. It is the joy and peace and serenity which is in the Divine Life itself, and we are given to share in that joy which is eternally within all Nows. The song is put into our mouths, for the Singer of all songs is singing within us. It is not we that sing; it is the Eternal Song of the Other, who sings in us, who sings unto us, and through us into the world.
For the holy Now is not something which we, by our activity, by our dynamic energy, overtake or come upon. It is a now which itself is dynamic, which lays hold actively upon us, which breaks in actively upon us and re-energizes us from within a new center. We can count upon this as the only secure dynamic, an all-potent factor in world-events. For the Eternal is urgently, actively breaking into time, working through those who are willing to be laid hold upon, to surrender self-confidence and self-centered effort, that is, self-originated effort, and let the Eternal be the dynamic guide in recreating, through us, our time-world.
This is the first fruit of the Spirit-a joy unspeakable and full of glory.
A Testament of Devotion
Compiled by Richard S. Adams
Cheap grace is the preaching of forgiveness without requiring repentance, baptism without church discipline, communion without confession, absolution without personal confession. Cheap grace is grace without discipleship, grace without the cross, grace without Jesus Christ, living and incarnate. Costly grace stands in stark contrast to this: it ... is costly because it calls us to follow, and it is grace because it calls us to follow Jesus Christ. It is costly because it costs a man his life, and it is grace because it gives a man the only true life.
--- Dietrich Bonhoeffer
If the Spirit of God has given you a vision
of what you are apart from the grace of God
(and He only does it when His Spirit is at work),
you know there is no criminal
who is half so bad in actuality
as you know yourself to be in possibility.
--- Oswald Chambers
When a man pants after God, it is a secret life within which makes him do it: he would not long after God by nature. No man thirsts for God while he is left in his carnal [that is, unconverted] state. The unrenewed man pants after anything sooner than God: … It proves a renewed nature when you long after God; it is a work of grace in your soul, and you may be thankful for it.
--- C. H. Spurgeon
As for me, I never lived, I was half dead, I was a rotting tree, until I reached the place where I wholly, with utter honesty, resolved and then re-resolved that I would find God’s will, and I would do that will though every fiber in me said no, and I would win the battle in my thoughts. It was as though some deep artesian well had been struck in my soul. . . . You and I shall soon blow away from our bodies. Money, praise, poverty, opposition, these make no difference, for they will all alike be forgotten in a thousand years, but this spirit which comes to a mind set upon continuous surrender, this spirit is timeless.
--- Frank Laubach, Letters by a Modern Mystic
... from here, there and everywhere
University of Virginia Library 1994
Ninth of eight month, 1757. -- Orders came at night to the military officers in our county (Burlington), directing them to draft the militia, and prepare a number of men to go off as soldiers, to the relief of the English at Fort William Henry, in New York government; a few days after which, there was a general review of the militia at Mount Holly, and a number of men were chosen and sent off under some officers. Shortly after, there came orders to draft three times as many, who were to hold themselves in readiness to march when fresh orders came. On the 17th there was a meeting of the military officers at Mount Holly, who agreed on draft; orders were sent to the men so chosen to meet their respective captains at set times and places, those in our township to meet at Mount Holly, amongst whom were a considerable number of our Society. My mind being affected herewith, I had fresh opportunity to see and consider the advantage of living in the real substance of religion, where practice doth harmonize with principle. Amongst the officers are men of understanding, who have some regard to sincerity where they see it; and when such in the execution of their office have men to deal with whom they believe to be upright-hearted, it is a painful task to put them to trouble on account of scruples of conscience, and they will be likely to avoid it as much as easily may be. But where men profess to be so meek and heavenly-minded, and to have their trust so firmly settled in God that they cannot join in wars, and yet by their spirit and conduct in common life manifest a contrary disposition, their difficulties are great at such a time.
When officers who are anxiously endeavoring to get troops to answer the demands of their superiors see men who are insincere pretend scruple of conscience in hopes of being excused from a dangerous employment, it is likely they will be roughly handled. In this time of commotion some of our young men left these parts and tarried abroad till it was over; some came, and proposed to go as soldiers; others appeared to have a real tender scruple in their minds against joining in wars, and were much humbled under the apprehension of a trial so near. I had conversation with several of them to my satisfaction. When the captain came to town, some of the last-mentioned went and told him in substance as follows: That they could not bear arms for conscience' sake; nor could they hire any to go in their places, being resigned as to the event. At length the captain acquainted them all that they might return home for the present, but he required them to provide themselves as soldiers, and be in readiness to march when called upon. This was such a time as I had not seen before; and yet I may say, with thankfulness to the Lord, that I believed the trial was intended for our good; and I was favored with resignation to him. The French army having taken the fort they were besieging, destroyed it and went away; the company of men who were first drafted, after some days' march, had orders to return home, and those on the second draft were no more called upon on that occasion.
John Woolman's Journal
by D.H. Stern
but those who sow righteousness gain a true reward.
19 Genuine righteousness leads to life,
but the pursuer of evil goes to his own death.
20 The crooked-hearted are an abomination to ADONAI,
but those sincere in their ways are his delight.
21 Depend on it: the evil will not go unpunished;
but the offspring of the righteous will escape.
Complete Jewish Bible : An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B'Rit Hadashah (New Testament)
A Daily Devotional by Oswald Chambers
Lovest thou Me? --- John 21:17.
Peter declares nothing now (cf. Matthew 26:33–35 ). Natural individuality professes and declares; the love of the personality is only discovered by the hurt of the question of Jesus Christ. Peter loved Jesus in the way in which any natural man loves a good man. That is temperamental love; it may go deep into the individuality, but it does not touch the centre of the person. True love never professes anything. Jesus said—“Whosoever shall confess Me before men,” i.e., confess his love not merely by his words, but by everything he does.
Unless we get hurt right out of every deception about ourselves, the word of God is not having its way with us. The word of God hurts as no sin can ever hurt, because sin blunts feeling. The question of the Lord intensifies feeling, until to be hurt by Jesus is the most exquisite hurt conceivable. It hurts not only in the natural way but in the profound personal way. The word of the Lord pierces even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, there is no deception left. There is no possibility of being sentimental with the Lord’s question; you cannot say nice things when the Lord speaks directly to you, the hurt is too terrific. It is such a hurt that it stings every other concern out of account. There never can be any mistake about the hurt of the Lord’s word when it comes to his child; but the point of the hurt is the great point of revelation.
My Utmost for His Highest
the Poetry of R.S. Thomas
In front of the fire
With you, the folk song
Of the wind in the chimney and the sparks'
Emboidery of the soot--eternity
Is here in this smakk room,
In intervals that our love
Widens; and outside
Of time, travellars
To a new Bethlehem, statesmen
And scientists with their hands full
Of the gifts that destroy,
Song at the year's turning: Poems 1942-1954
The Book of Leviticus is often viewed as God’s instruction to Israel on holy living. Earlier God spoke from the mountaintop; now, with the tabernacle erected, God’s presence was among the people. The people were in unique fellowship with God, and it was His “going with” them that set Israel apart from all others (Ex. 33:16).
But how might they live so close to the holy God? Only by continual cleansing and commitment to a holy lifestyle. J. Sidlow Baxter ( Baxter's Explore the Book ) notes this dual need and divides Leviticus into two parts:
I. Sacrifice: Ground of Fellowship
A. Offerings — absolution 1–7
B. Priesthood — mediation 8–10
C. People — purification 11–16
D. Altar — reconciliation 17
II. Separation: Way of Fellowship
A. Rules for people 18–20
B. Rules for priests 21–22
C. Rules concerning feasts 23–24
D. Rules concerning Canaan 25–27
The Teacher's Commentary
A young girl is reading a book and comes across a big word she has never seen before. She runs over to her father and asks, “What does this mean?” Her dad looks at the word and smiles, but instead of giving her the answer, he pulls a dictionary off the shelf and tells her, “Go look it up!” “Come on, Dad, I know you know it. Just tell me what it means!” He sticks to his guns and insists that she look up the word herself. After she finds the definition, the father tells his daughter: “I want you to get into the habit of learning things for yourself. When you do that, you’ll really remember. If I always gave you the answers so easily, they just wouldn’t stay with you. And besides, I won’t always be here to give you the answer. You’ve got to learn to rely on yourself.”
Hillel taught much the same lesson to the non-Jew: I can give you the short answer, but if you really want to understand the Torah, you have to go out and learn it yourself.
The same holds true for those who want to learn Talmud. This book will give the short answer—a brief introduction. The real path to “swimming in the sea of Talmud” comes when the reader takes to heart Hillel’s key words: “The rest is commentary.” Once you have learned the maxim and the text, you must make your own commentary, connecting Talmud texts to your own life.
In the Context section, we endeavor to explain what the Gemara meant to the Rabbis who are mentioned in our texts. In the D’rash section, we try to apply the Gemara to our own world and the issues that confront us today. We believe very much in taking a conceptual approach to the Talmud: Even though it appears that the Rabbis were dealing with arcane ritual matters, in truth their debates were really about issues that are relevant to all people at all times.
In trying to have the Rabbis of the Talmud speak to us, we often use stories and questions that resonate to the modern ear. We give our own interpretations to the words of the Rabbis as we try to apply their wisdom to our lives. We recognize that these applications are subjective understandings; they are by no means the only interpretations. The reader may come up with his or her own ways of connecting the teachings of the Rabbis to the contemporary world. This is exactly what should happen. The study of Talmud has been one of the most authentically Jewish activities precisely because it demands that we connect the past to the present. When we make this connection, we all become students of Hillel.
Go and learn!
Swimming in the Sea of Talmud: Lessons for Everyday Living
Thomas A Kempis
Book Two / The Interior Life
The Fourth Chapter / Purity Of Mind And Unity Of Purpose
A MAN is raised up from the earth by two wings—simplicity and purity. There must be simplicity in his intention and purity in his desires. Simplicity leads to God, purity embraces and enjoys Him.
If your heart is free from ill-ordered affection, no good deed will be difficult for you. If you aim at and seek after nothing but the pleasure of God and the welfare of your neighbor, you will enjoy freedom within.
If your heart were right, then every created thing would be a mirror of life for you and a book of holy teaching, for there is no creature so small and worthless that it does not show forth the goodness of God. If inwardly you were good and pure, you would see all things clearly and understand them rightly, for a pure heart penetrates to heaven and hell, and as a man is within, so he judges what is without. If there be joy in the world, the pure of heart certainly possess it; and if there be anguish and affliction anywhere, an evil conscience knows it too well.
As iron cast into fire loses its rust and becomes glowing white, so he who turns completely to God is stripped of his sluggishness and changed into a new man. When a man begins to grow lax, he fears a little toil and welcomes external comfort, but when he begins perfectly to conquer himself and to walk bravely in the ways of God, then he thinks those things less difficult which he thought so hard before.
The Imitation Of Christ
As a father has compassion on his children, so the LORD has compassion on those who fear him.
--- Psalm 103:13.
Look at the text, believing in its meaning and not saying, “That is in a human way.” ( Spurgeon's Sermons, 5 Volumes ) For there is no other manner in which we can speak and no other manner in which God himself can speak if he means us to understand.
Hear it first for your encouragement, and hear it next for your imitation. Hear it, that you may be encouraged; God is not unfeelingly afflicting you, but he feels compassion for you. Hear it that you may go into the world with a like compassionate eye. If you ever have to say a rough word in fidelity or are required to utter a rebuke, do it in the way your heavenly Father does, having compassion even if you have to blame and gently delivering the expostulation that it grieves you to have to deliver at all.
Observe that the pity of the Lord extends to all those who fear him. There are none who are not fit objects of his compassion—the very best and brightest of his saints, the brave heroes, the well-instructed fathers, the diligent workers; God has compassion for you. Take that home to yourselves, because there is a beautiful lesson of humility in so accounting ourselves as pitiable creatures in the eyes of the Lord, even when we are at our best estate. I have seen some brothers and sisters who really did not seem at all fit for pity, because they imagined that the very roots of sin had been eradicated out of their hearts. Their characters and their conduct were akin to perfection in their own estimation. They had lived many weeks without a sin, except some wandering thought, but they could hardly refer to that as a fault. I pity people who talk so; if they are God’s children, all that God does with them is he has compassion for them, and well he may; for he says to himself, “Poor dear creatures; how little they know of themselves, and how different their estimate of perfection is from mine.” He still feels compassion for them.
The biggest children he has, the children who are most like their Father and have learned most of Jesus, may come to this text and see themselves depicted in it—“As a father has compassion on his children, so the LORD has compassion on those who fear him.”
--- C. H. Spurgeon
Take Heart: Daily Devotions with the Church's Great Preachers
Passing the Flame
“How long, O God, shall darkness cover this kingdom?”
Patrick Hamilton’s dying words haunted George Wishart, only son of distinguished James Wishart of Pitarrow, Scotland. George was tall, dark-haired, good-looking, pleasant, and eager to both learn and teach. He believed that God’s way of salvation was through the finished work of Christ alone. Those Reformation beliefs put him at risk. In 1544 he began preaching in Dundee from the book of Romans. Among his listeners was a young man named John Knox. Knox was struck with Wishart and began serving as his bodyguard, carrying a two-handed sword.
Archbishop David Beaton brutally sought to repress Protestants, and as Wishart’s arrest grew more certain, Knox asked to remain at his side. “No” said Wishart, embracing the younger man. “One is sufficient for a sacrifice at this time.” On the morning of March 1, 1546, Wishart was led to the stake, where he told the crowds, “I exhort you, love the Word of God and suffer patiently. I know surely that my soul shall sup with my Savior this night.” He was then strangled and his body burned to ashes.
His death enraged Knox and all of Scotland, and within two months Archbishop Beaton was assassinated. Knox wasn’t among the murderers, but he vowed not to rest till Scotland was Protestant. It proved a costly vow, for Knox was soon imprisoned on a galley ship, chained to the oars with a whip to his back. He labored to exhaustion with no hope of release.
He was eventually released, and in years to come Knox took Scotland by storm, provoking rulers, inciting riots, demanding change. He prayed down the wrath of heaven on his nemesis, Mary, Queen of Scots. He was called the “Thundering Scot,” and as he aged his visage darkened. The years took their toll on both his health and his patience. He died exhausted, perhaps embittered, in 1572.
But his efforts inspired Scots for years to come, and the Reformation triumphed in their land at last.
Elijah prayed: Our LORD, you are the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel. Now, prove that you are the God of this nation,… Please answer me, so these people will know that you are the LORD God, and that you will turn their hearts back to you.
--- 1 Kings 18:36,37.
On This Day 365 Amazing And Inspiring Stories About Saints, Martyrs And Heroes
Daily Readings / CHARLES H. SPURGEON
Morning - March 1
“Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out.” --- Song of Solomon 4:16.
Anything is better than the dead calm of indifference. Our souls may wisely desire the north wind of trouble if that alone can be sanctified to the drawing forth of the perfume of our graces. So long as it cannot be said, “The Lord was not in the wind,” we will not shrink from the most wintry blast that ever blew upon plants of grace. Did not the spouse in this verse humbly submit herself to the reproofs of her Beloved; only entreating him to send forth his grace in some form, and making no stipulation as to the peculiar manner in which it should come? Did she not, like ourselves, become so utterly weary of deadness and unholy calm that she sighed for any visitation which would brace her to action? Yet she desires the warm south wind of comfort, too, the smiles of divine love, the joy of the Redeemer’s presence; these are often mightily effectual to arouse our sluggish life. She desires either one or the other, or both; so that she may but be able to delight her Beloved with the spices of her garden. She cannot endure to be unprofitable, nor can we. How cheering a thought that Jesus can find comfort in our poor feeble graces. Can it be? It seems far too good to be true. Well may we court trial or even death itself if we shall thereby be aided to make glad Immanuel’s heart. O that our heart were crushed to atoms if only by such bruising our sweet Lord Jesus could be glorified. Graces unexercised are as sweet perfumes slumbering in the cups of the flowers: the wisdom of the great Husbandman overrules diverse and opposite causes to produce the one desired result, and makes both affliction and consolation draw forth the grateful odours of faith, love, patience, hope, resignation, joy, and the other fair flowers of the garden. May we know by sweet experience, what this means.
Evening - March 1
“He is precious.” --- 1 Peter 2:7.
As all the rivers run into the sea, so all delights centre in our Beloved. The glances of his eyes outshine the sun: the beauties of his face are fairer than the choicest flowers: no fragrance is like the breath of his mouth. Gems of the mine, and pearls from the sea, are worthless things when measured by his preciousness. Peter tells us that Jesus is precious, but he did not and could not tell us how precious, nor could any of us compute the value of God’s unspeakable gift. Words cannot set forth the preciousness of the Lord Jesus to his people, nor fully tell how essential he is to their satisfaction and happiness. Believer, have you not found in the midst of plenty a sore famine if your Lord has been absent? The sun was shining, but Christ had hidden himself, and all the world was black to you; or it was night, and since the bright and morning star was gone, no other star could yield you so much as a ray of light. What a howling wilderness is this world without our Lord! If once he hideth himself from us, withered are the flowers of our garden; our pleasant fruits decay; the birds suspend their songs, and a tempest overturns our hopes. All earth’s candles cannot make daylight if the Sun of Righteousness be eclipsed. He is the soul of our soul, the light of our light, the life of our life. Dear reader, what wouldst thou do in the world without him, when thou wakest up and lookest forward to the day’s battle? What wouldst thou do at night, when thou comest home jaded and weary, if there were no door of fellowship between thee and Christ? Blessed be his name, he will not suffer us to try our lot without him, for Jesus never forsakes his own. Yet, let the thought of what life would be without him enhance his preciousness.
Morning and Evening
BRING THEM IN
Alexcenah Thomas, 19th century
I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd. (John 10:16)
During this month our attention is often focused on the ministry of our Sunday schools. The Sunday school has been the church’s chief agency for reaching and teaching children for the past two centuries. It would be impossible to measure the extent of its spiritual influence during that time.
The Sunday school movement began in England during the lifetime of Robert Raikes (1736–1811), who was often called the “founder of the modern Sunday school.” Raikes became intensely concerned with the spiritual and social conditions of the great masses of poor illiterate children. Since education was reserved for the wealthy, four out of five poor children had no schooling. Child labor was shamefully exploited. In the midst of these conditions Raikes began taking children off the streets and teaching them biblical truths as well as the ability to read and write.
Later the followers of John and Charles Wesley, the Methodists, began establishing Sunday schools, first in England and then in America following the Revolutionary War. Still later the Sunday school movement was encouraged further by the founding of the American Sunday School Union in 1824. As this concern for children developed, it became apparent to Christian leaders that music is a natural means for working with children, since most children respond readily to musical activities. This desire to reach and teach children for Christ through appropriate songs was one of the important factors that led to the rise of the gospel song movement during the latter half of the 19th century.
“Bring Them In” has been widely used since being published in 1885 by its composer William Ogden, who was known for his work with children’s music.
Hark! ’tis the Shepherd’s voice I hear, out in the desert dark and drear, calling the sheep who’ve gone astray far from the Shepherd’s fold away.
Who’ll go and help this Shepherd kind, help Him the wand’ring one to find? Who’ll bring the lost ones to the fold where they’ll be sheltered from the cold?
Out in the desert hear their cry, out on the mountains wild and high. Hark! ’tis the Master speaks to thee, “Go find my sheep where’er they be.”
Chorus: Bring them in, bring them in, bring them in from the fields of sin; bring them in, bring them in, bring the wand’ring ones to Jesus.
For Today: Psalm 96:2, 3; Proverbs 11:30; Matthew 13:39; Matthew 18:12.
Spend time in prayer for your church Sunday school—the leaders and teachers who have assumed the important responsibility of ministering the Christian faith to children and youth. At your first opportunity let them know of your prayerful concern and appreciation for their work.
Amazing Grace: 366 Inspiring Hymn Stories for Daily Devotions
Selected Scriptures | John MacArthur
Richard Mouw | Henry Center