Leviticus 14 - 15
Laws for Cleansing LepersLeviticus 14:1 The LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 2 “This shall be the law of the leprous person for the day of his cleansing. He shall be brought to the priest, 3 and the priest shall go out of the camp, and the priest shall look. Then, if the case of leprous disease is healed in the leprous person, 4 the priest shall command them to take for him who is to be cleansed two live clean birds and cedarwood and scarlet yarn and hyssop. 5 And the priest shall command them to kill one of the birds in an earthenware vessel over fresh water. 6 He shall take the live bird with the cedarwood and the scarlet yarn and the hyssop, and dip them and the live bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the fresh water. 7 And he shall sprinkle it seven times on him who is to be cleansed of the leprous disease. Then he shall pronounce him clean and shall let the living bird go into the open field. 8 And he who is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes and shave off all his hair and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean. And after that he may come into the camp, but live outside his tent seven days. 9 And on the seventh day he shall shave off all his hair from his head, his beard, and his eyebrows. He shall shave off all his hair, and then he shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water, and he shall be clean.
10 “And on the eighth day he shall take two male lambs without blemish, and one ewe lamb a year old without blemish, and a grain offering of three tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil, and one log of oil. 11 And the priest who cleanses him shall set the man who is to be cleansed and these things before the LORD, at the entrance of the tent of meeting. 12 And the priest shall take one of the male lambs and offer it for a guilt offering, along with the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the LORD. 13 And he shall kill the lamb in the place where they kill the sin offering and the burnt offering, in the place of the sanctuary. For the guilt offering, like the sin offering, belongs to the priest; it is most holy. 14 The priest shall take some of the blood of the guilt offering, and the priest shall put it on the lobe of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed and on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot. 15 Then the priest shall take some of the log of oil and pour it into the palm of his own left hand 16 and dip his right finger in the oil that is in his left hand and sprinkle some oil with his finger seven times before the LORD. 17 And some of the oil that remains in his hand the priest shall put on the lobe of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed and on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt offering. 18 And the rest of the oil that is in the priest’s hand he shall put on the head of him who is to be cleansed. Then the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD. 19 The priest shall offer the sin offering, to make atonement for him who is to be cleansed from his uncleanness. And afterward he shall kill the burnt offering. 20 And the priest shall offer the burnt offering and the grain offering on the altar. Thus the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be clean.
21 “But if he is poor and cannot afford so much, then he shall take one male lamb for a guilt offering to be waved, to make atonement for him, and a tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering, and a log of oil; 22 also two turtledoves or two pigeons, whichever he can afford. The one shall be a sin offering and the other a burnt offering. 23 And on the eighth day he shall bring them for his cleansing to the priest, to the entrance of the tent of meeting, before the LORD. 24 And the priest shall take the lamb of the guilt offering and the log of oil, and the priest shall wave them for a wave offering before the LORD. 25 And he shall kill the lamb of the guilt offering. And the priest shall take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot. 26 And the priest shall pour some of the oil into the palm of his own left hand, 27 and shall sprinkle with his right finger some of the oil that is in his left hand seven times before the LORD. 28 And the priest shall put some of the oil that is in his hand on the lobe of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed and on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot, in the place where the blood of the guilt offering was put. 29 And the rest of the oil that is in the priest’s hand he shall put on the head of him who is to be cleansed, to make atonement for him before the LORD. 30 And he shall offer, of the turtledoves or pigeons, whichever he can afford, 31 one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering, along with a grain offering. And the priest shall make atonement before the LORD for him who is being cleansed. 32 This is the law for him in whom is a case of leprous disease, who cannot afford the offerings for his cleansing.”
Laws for Cleansing Houses33 The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, 34 “When you come into the land of Canaan, which I give you for a possession, and I put a case of leprous disease in a house in the land of your possession, 35 then he who owns the house shall come and tell the priest, ‘There seems to me to be some case of disease in my house.’ 36 Then the priest shall command that they empty the house before the priest goes to examine the disease, lest all that is in the house be declared unclean. And afterward the priest shall go in to see the house. 37 And he shall examine the disease. And if the disease is in the walls of the house with greenish or reddish spots, and if it appears to be deeper than the surface, 38 then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house and shut up the house seven days. 39 And the priest shall come again on the seventh day, and look. If the disease has spread in the walls of the house, 40 then the priest shall command that they take out the stones in which is the disease and throw them into an unclean place outside the city. 41 And he shall have the inside of the house scraped all around, and the plaster that they scrape off they shall pour out in an unclean place outside the city. 42 Then they shall take other stones and put them in the place of those stones, and he shall take other plaster and plaster the house.
43 “If the disease breaks out again in the house, after he has taken out the stones and scraped the house and plastered it, 44 then the priest shall go and look. And if the disease has spread in the house, it is a persistent leprous disease in the house; it is unclean. 45 And he shall break down the house, its stones and timber and all the plaster of the house, and he shall carry them out of the city to an unclean place. 46 Moreover, whoever enters the house while it is shut up shall be unclean until the evening, 47 and whoever sleeps in the house shall wash his clothes, and whoever eats in the house shall wash his clothes.
48 “But if the priest comes and looks, and if the disease has not spread in the house after the house was plastered, then the priest shall pronounce the house clean, for the disease is healed. 49 And for the cleansing of the house he shall take two small birds, with cedarwood and scarlet yarn and hyssop, 50 and shall kill one of the birds in an earthenware vessel over fresh water 51 and shall take the cedarwood and the hyssop and the scarlet yarn, along with the live bird, and dip them in the blood of the bird that was killed and in the fresh water and sprinkle the house seven times. 52 Thus he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird and with the fresh water and with the live bird and with the cedarwood and hyssop and scarlet yarn. 53 And he shall let the live bird go out of the city into the open country. So he shall make atonement for the house, and it shall be clean.”
54 This is the law for any case of leprous disease: for an itch, 55 for leprous disease in a garment or in a house, 56 and for a swelling or an eruption or a spot, 57 to show when it is unclean and when it is clean. This is the law for leprous disease.
Laws About Bodily DischargesLeviticus 15:1 The LORD spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, 2 “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, When any man has a discharge from his body, his discharge is unclean. 3 And this is the law of his uncleanness for a discharge: whether his body runs with his discharge, or his body is blocked up by his discharge, it is his uncleanness. 4 Every bed on which the one with the discharge lies shall be unclean, and everything on which he sits shall be unclean. 5 And anyone who touches his bed shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 6 And whoever sits on anything on which the one with the discharge has sat shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 7 And whoever touches the body of the one with the discharge shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 8 And if the one with the discharge spits on someone who is clean, then he shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 9 And any saddle on which the one with the discharge rides shall be unclean. 10 And whoever touches anything that was under him shall be unclean until the evening. And whoever carries such things shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 11 Anyone whom the one with the discharge touches without having rinsed his hands in water shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 12 And an earthenware vessel that the one with the discharge touches shall be broken, and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water.
13 “And when the one with a discharge is cleansed of his discharge, then he shall count for himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes. And he shall bathe his body in fresh water and shall be clean. 14 And on the eighth day he shall take two turtledoves or two pigeons and come before the LORD to the entrance of the tent of meeting and give them to the priest. 15 And the priest shall use them, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. And the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his discharge.
16 “If a man has an emission of semen, he shall bathe his whole body in water and be unclean until the evening. 17 And every garment and every skin on which the semen comes shall be washed with water and be unclean until the evening. 18 If a man lies with a woman and has an emission of semen, both of them shall bathe themselves in water and be unclean until the evening.
19 “When a woman has a discharge, and the discharge in her body is blood, she shall be in her menstrual impurity for seven days, and whoever touches her shall be unclean until the evening. 20 And everything on which she lies during her menstrual impurity shall be unclean. Everything also on which she sits shall be unclean. 21 And whoever touches her bed shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 22 And whoever touches anything on which she sits shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 23 Whether it is the bed or anything on which she sits, when he touches it he shall be unclean until the evening. 24 And if any man lies with her and her menstrual impurity comes upon him, he shall be unclean seven days, and every bed on which he lies shall be unclean.
25 “If a woman has a discharge of blood for many days, not at the time of her menstrual impurity, or if she has a discharge beyond the time of her impurity, all the days of the discharge she shall continue in uncleanness. As in the days of her impurity, she shall be unclean. 26 Every bed on which she lies, all the days of her discharge, shall be to her as the bed of her impurity. And everything on which she sits shall be unclean, as in the uncleanness of her menstrual impurity. 27 And whoever touches these things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening. 28 But if she is cleansed of her discharge, she shall count for herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean. 29 And on the eighth day she shall take two turtledoves or two pigeons and bring them to the priest, to the entrance of the tent of meeting. 30 And the priest shall use one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. And the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD for her unclean discharge.
31 “Thus you shall keep the people of Israel separate from their uncleanness, lest they die in their uncleanness by defiling my tabernacle that is in their midst.”
32 This is the law for him who has a discharge and for him who has an emission of semen, becoming unclean thereby; 33 also for her who is unwell with her menstrual impurity, that is, for anyone, male or female, who has a discharge, and for the man who lies with a woman who is unclean.
This chapter deals with the uncleanness caused by discharges from the sexual organs: (a) long-term male discharge (e.g., gonorrhea; vv. 2–15); (b) short-term male discharges (vv. 16–18); (c) short-term female discharge (menstruation, vv. 19–24); and (d) long-term female discharges (vv. 25–30). That perfectly natural processes like sexual intercourse (v. 18) or menstruation should make someone unclean (i.e., unfit to worship) is surprising. But all these cases involve the loss of bodily fluids (blood or semen), and any loss of a “life fluid” suggested death and was incompatible with the presence of God, who is perfect life.The Reformation Study Bible
The New Testament shows God, the giver of perfect life, incarnate in Jesus Christ, healing those who suffered exclusion from His presence under these Old Testament rules (Matt. 9:20–22). The divine program of redemption was historically progressive. The old covenant arrangements that seem so strange to us were early object lessons, a “tutor” pointing forward to the full redemption accomplished in Jesus Christ (Gal. 3:24, 25). ESV Reformation Study Bible
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Reasonable Atheists and Reasonable Believers Are Targeting the Same Group
By J. Warner Wallace 2/2/2018
Portland State University philosophy professor and vocal atheist, Peter Boghossian, wrote a book entitled, A Manual for Creating Atheists. Boghossian describes the effort as “the first-ever guide not for talking people into faith–but for talking them out of it.” He hopes to teach atheists “to engage the faithful in conversations that will help them value reason and rationality, cast doubt on their religious beliefs, mistrust their faith, abandon superstition and irrationality, and ultimately embrace reason.” In a recent YouTube video, Boghossian teaches a group of atheists what he refers to as “street epistemology” and makes an interesting observation. According to Boghossian, Christians fail to process truth claims rationally; instead of assessing the evidence and drawing the most reasonable inference, they seem to rely on personal experience, emotional response and blind faith. Boghossian describes such an approach as dangerous, particularly when applied by political leaders who set public policy related to sex education, same sex marriage, assisted suicide, corporal punishment in schools, family planning and creation education. Boghossian encourages atheists to engage Christians not on the evidence but on the way Christians evaluate truth claims in the first place. As a reasonable Christian case maker, I couldn’t agree more with Boghossian’s approach. In fact, I think reasonable atheists and reasonable Christians are trying to reach the very same group.
I’ve been traveling the country as a Christian case maker, teaching Christian groups in churches, conferences and schools. Sadly, I also find most Christians believe what they believe without assessing the evidence. In fact, I often have to make a case for case making! Many of my Christian brothers and sisters are quick to express appreciation for my visit, but are also eager to tell me they didn’t need any evidence in the first place. Some have been Christians all their lives, many believe the Holy Spirit has spoken to them, and others have simply become comfortable in the Christian community. All of these dear brothers and sisters have faithfully trusted Jesus for their salvation, but most are unable to defend what they believe (or how they came to their belief) when approached by aggressive skeptics, particularly those who have been trained by Boghossian.
Many Christians believe true faith is independent of evidence. Who needs faith if we have enough evidence to make the case? But Jesus seemed to hold evidence in high regard. He repeatedly offered evidence of His miracles to verify His identity, and He told His observers this evidence was sufficient (see John 5:36, John 10:37-38, and John 14:11). Jesus also spent forty days after the Resurrection, providing “many convincing proofs.” Biblical faith is not blind, it is a reasonable trust in the best inference from the evidence, even when unanswered questions still exist. If you think about it, all of us, regardless of worldview, believe what we believe even though we have less than complete evidence. Every worldview requires some level of reasonable trust.
I was a thoughtful atheist until the age of thirty-five. I first examined the claims of the Gospel authors using the investigative tools I learned as a cold-case detective. In other words, I examined the evidence and meticulously inferred to the most reasonable inference. I learned how to choose between competing explanations and use abductive reasoning to arrive at reasonable conclusions. I became familiar with the arguments for (and against) the Christian worldview. As it turns out, there’s more than enough evidence to conclude the Gospel accounts are a reliable record of history; Christians can believe what they believe because of the evidence rather than in spite of the evidence.
James "Jim" Warner Wallace (born June 16, 1961) is an American homicide detective and Christian apologist. Wallace is a Senior Fellow at the Colson Center for Christian Worldview and an Adjunct Professor of Apologetics at Biola University in La Mirada, California. He has authored several books, including Cold-Case Christianity, God’s Crime Scene, and Forensic Faith, in which he applies principles of cold case homicide investigation to apologetic concerns such as the existence of God and the reliability of the Gospels.
Twilight Musings: “Groaning Together”
By Elton Higgs 1/27/2017
One day when I was reading the familiar passage in Rom. 8 on our hope for the final deliverance from sin through the resurrection of our bodies, I was struck with the recurrence of the verb “groan” in the space of eight verses:
(Ro 8:20–27) 20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 21 that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. 22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. 23 And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 24 For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.
26 Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. 27 And he who searches hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. ESV
There is an interlinking in these uses of “groaning,” with the first occurrence referring to the whole of creation, the second referring to all of God’s people, and the third to the agency of the Holy Spirit interceding for us with God.
This section of chapter 8 was introduced by the affirmation that as believers in Christ we have been certified by the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit as children of God and heirs of His kingdom. However, our walk in the Spirit as sons and daughters of God entails suffering with Christ “in order that we may also be glorified with him” (Rom 8:17). Accordingly, both of the first two occurrences of groaning in this passage are associated with a particular kind of productive human suffering, childbirth. The first, the groaning of the physical creation to be “set free from its bondage to decay and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God” (v.21), is then linked to the inward groaning of each Christian for our “adoption as sons [and daughters], the redemption of our bodies” (v.23). Our suffering with Christ is not meaningless, but like the pains of childbirth, it ends in great joy, so that, as Paul has assured us, “the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us” (Rom. 8:18-19.
Dr. Elton Higgs was a faculty member in the English department of the University of Michigan-Dearborn from 1965-2001. Having retired from UM-D as Prof. of English in 2001, he now lives with his wife and adult daughter in Jackson, MI.. He has published scholarly articles on Chaucer, Langland, the Pearl Poet, Shakespeare, and Milton. His self-published Collected Poems is online at Lulu.com. He also published a couple dozen short articles in religious journals.
Six Things That May Change the Way You Think About Police Officers
By J. Warner Wallace 7/11/16
After the horrific events of last week, I’ve been asked repeatedly about race relations in America, the deaths of African-Americans at the hands of police officers, and the increasing violence against police officers. As a member of the law-enforcement family (and a member of the Christian community), I would like to respond by providing some insight into the training and daily practices of police officers, particularly given the number of requests I’ve received. Although most of us are familiar with police work from television dramas and news reports, few people actually understand the nature of the environment in which police officers work. Once you understand what police officers are asked to do on a daily basis, it may be easier for you to assess the current situation and respond in a more reasonable way. Here are six important things everyone should keep in mind (and prayer) when assessing the actions of police officers in our country:
1. No one is more upset about “bad” police shootings than good police officers. | At the end of my law enforcement career, my Chief asked me to design an ethics program for our agency. I was eager to get involved. I know there are times when officers may act inappropriately. We’re all fallen human beings, and the standard for police officers is higher than just about any other profession in the country. We have to be perfect in times of crisis with little or no time to consider the options. Some are better at this than others, and a few are bound to do or say something they shouldn’t. No one is more offended when this happens than the hundreds of thousands of police officers who work hard to uphold the honor of the badge. No one hates a bad cop more than a good cop.
Today there are over 900,000 sworn officers nationwide. These law enforcement officers aren’t nearly as popular as other first-responders, like fire or paramedic personnel. In 2014, for example, police were assaulted 15,725 times, resulting in 13,824 injuries. In 2015, 123 of these officers were killed in the line of duty. Police officers obviously don’t work in a risk-free environment, but the risk is not an excuse for bad behavior. We will not excuse the inappropriate actions of a tiny minority when they occur. Instead, we want offenders banished from our ranks when it is justified. We will not tolerate the badge being tarnished. So, as you assess each allegation leveled against a police officer, remember this: if, in the end, it’s determined that the officer did something criminal, no one will be quicker to call for his or her prosecution than the law enforcement community.
2. Police officers are more than reactive; they are proactive. | This is incredibly important to remember. Unlike other first-responders, officers are expected to do more than simply respond. The largest division in every police agency is the Patrol Division. Fire personnel don’t patrol the street looking for the next fire, but police officers are asked to keep our communities safe by taking a proactive approach. We handle our calls for service, then we actively patrol the streets in an effort to prevent the next crime.
This proactive nature of police work is sometimes controversial and is the source of incredible risk on the part of every officer. Think about it for a minute: it would be a lot easier (and safer) for officers to stay in the station and simply respond to take reports after the fact. But that’s not what we do. Instead, we are on the street, ever-vigilant, hoping to be near enough to the robbery or assault to actually catch the bad-guy. Better yet, we want to stop crimes before they ever occur. When I first started as a police officer, all of us recognized this preventative effort as our duty. One of my partners would start each shift by saying, “Are you ready to get out there and crush crime?”
James "Jim" Warner Wallace (born June 16, 1961) is an American homicide detective and Christian apologist. Wallace is a Senior Fellow at the Colson Center for Christian Worldview and an Adjunct Professor of Apologetics at Biola University in La Mirada, California. He has authored several books, including Cold-Case Christianity, God’s Crime Scene, and Forensic Faith, in which he applies principles of cold case homicide investigation to apologetic concerns such as the existence of God and the reliability of the Gospels.
The economic story about Sweden’s social democracy the left never tells
By James Pethokoukis 2/1/2017
While many on the left have a soft spot for Scandinavian economies, a Milken Review Institute piece by Swedish economist Andreas Bergh offers a corrective. I highlight the following since it seems to describe the Sweden — high taxes, big welfare state — as imagined by many progressives:
In the 1970s, several well-intended political reforms backfired. The desire to increase income equality through high marginal tax rates and generous welfare benefits weakened work incentives and created strong incentives for tax avoidance. Indeed, in the 1970s and 1980s, many wealthy Swedes – notably Bjorn Borg – left the country to avoid the taxman.
Meanwhile, the desire to tame the business cycle and minimize unemployment led to the subsidization of noncompetitive industries. The unions’ desire to drive wages ahead of productivity growth led to inflation, while efforts to restore Sweden’s competitiveness through repeated currency devaluations led to both a lower living standard and investment-sapping uncertainty.
Perhaps most important, the mix of subsidies and devaluations sent the signal that firms in trouble could turn to the government for help, rather than be forced to innovate in order to stay competitive. When that happens, economies inevitably pay a price.
After the crisis of the early 1990s, the Swedish economy recovered smartly. In many ways, Sweden learned from its mistakes and took measures to avoid large budget deficits and inflationary wage pressures. By the mid-1990s, these changes were institutionalized – and strikingly, often with support from Social Democrats as well as the right-wing parties. Prominent examples include a tax reform that lowered marginal rates substantially and a pension reform that balanced the risks between pensioners and taxpayers by automatically adjusting payments to demographic and economic conditions.
James Pethokoukis is a columnist and blogger at the American Enterprise Institute. Previously, he was the Washington columnist for Reuters Breakingviews, the opinion and commentary wing of Thomson Reuters.
Read The Psalms In "1" Year
Psalm 18The LORD Is My Rock and My Fortress
18 To The Choirmaster. A Psalm Of David, The Servant Of The LORD, Who Addressed The Words Of This Song To The LORD On The Day When The LORD Delivered Him From The Hand Of All Is Enemies, And From The Hand Of Saul. He Said:
13 The LORD also thundered in the heavens,
and the Most High uttered his voice,
hailstones and coals of fire.
14 And he sent out his arrows and scattered them;
he flashed forth lightnings and routed them.
15 Then the channels of the sea were seen,
and the foundations of the world were laid bare
at your rebuke, O LORD,
at the blast of the breath of your nostrils.
16 He sent from on high, he took me;
he drew me out of many waters.
17 He rescued me from my strong enemy
and from those who hated me,
for they were too mighty for me.
18 They confronted me in the day of my calamity,
but the LORD was my support.
19 He brought me out into a broad place;
he rescued me, because he delighted in me.
The truth of Romans 8:28
By Alistair Begg from The Hand of God: Finding His Care in All Circumstances
The truth of Romans 8:28 is far more than just what I call kitchen-verse theology. Now let me explain what I mean by that. Commit thy ways to Him
Kitchen-verse theology is when we take a plaque with a verse on it and stick it above the kitchen sink, with the idea that when we say it over and over again as a sort of Christian mantra, it will somehow start working for us. This is often accompanied by the notion that working for “our good” will mean an abundance of sunshine and the absence of rain. But the idea that Romans 8:28 is only “at work” in the sunshine and not the storm produces a theology of triumphalism.
Such a perspective fails to reckon with life when the clouds come and the wheels fall off. We need to learn that God’s providential hand is at work in the hard times. And that He works for the good of those who love Him in all things — not just in the triumphs and successes, but in the dungeon. The “good” of those who love Him is ultimately our conformity to Christ and our sanctification.
We need also to recognize that when God in His providence shines His light into our darkness, as He did in the dungeon for Joseph, He’s not doing it because we have merited His favor. You see, some of us have got it right about the doctrine of justification. We understand that we cannot earn salvation, which is a gift of God’s free grace. But that’s true not only of coming to Christ, but also of living for Christ. We don’t merit His favor. He doesn’t repay us for the good things we’ve done by making the sun shine on us. If Joseph had anticipated that, how would we explain what happened to him?
Joseph responded to temptation with absolute integrity and purity, and what was his reward? A trip to the dungeon. But then, suddenly, in the midst of that experience, the clouds parted and the sun shone upon him in the person of the warden.
God chose to do this out of His own goodness, motivated by nothing in Joseph and driven by nothing in the circumstances, but only by His sovereign plan and purpose. John Calvin says, “Since we are unworthy that He should grant us his help, the cause of its communication must be in Himself, seeing that He is merciful.”
Some of us are still living with a form of cause-and-effect Christianity. But think about the way we parents love our children. We say no to them in certain things. The kids don’t understand, and they complain. But we do it anyway, because it’s for their good.
And sometimes, when they are least deserving, we lavish our attention upon them so as to move their hearts to repentance at the awareness of our unconditional favor. We do so because we love them with a passion.
God is far more willing to bless us than we are to take the time to even ask Him for blessings. And when He shines the sun of His providence into the life of His servant, it is not because the servant has merited God’s favor, which is induced by nothing other than God’s goodness.
So when we sing, “God is so good, He’s so good to me,” we have to acknowledge that this remains true even in the dungeon — because our good God is working all things out in conformity with the purpose of His will.
Our problem is that we have a limited perspective. All we can see is Earth, not what God is doing from heaven’s side to bring about His good purpose in us and in others.
If we could see all that God is doing, we would say, “Oh, this is fabulous!” But, instead, we’re tempted to declare, “I don’t think I should be in this dark dungeon. This shouldn’t be happening to me. This isn’t fair.”
That’s why we need a theology. We can’t live wisely without biblical doctrine. We can live only as silly people.
But once we begin to understand the great truths that underpin our faith, we can say with John Wesley,
Thy works into His hands;
And rest in His unchanging Word
Who heaven and earth commands.
Through waves and clouds and storms
His power will clear thy way;
Wait thou His time; the darkest night
Shall end in brightest day.
Leave to His sovereign sway
To choose and to command;
So shalt thou, wondering, own His way
How wise, how strong His hand.
I remember a dear lady I often visited in the hospital in Edinburgh. She had been the chief nurse in the royal infirmary and had given her entire life to the care of others. Now, hospitalized in grave condition, she would say to me, “Alistair, read me the Bible. Just read me the Bible.”
This woman knew she had little prospect of being discharged. But she knew where she was going when she left. Joseph had no prospect of coming out of the dungeon. But he knew that God was working in his life for good (Genesis 50:20).
Dr. Alistair Begg | (Trent University; London School of Theology; Westminster Seminary) was born in Scotland and spent the first 30 years of life in the United Kingdom. Since September of 1983, he has been the senior pastor at Parkside Church in suburban Cleveland, Ohio. He is the daily speaker on the national radio program Truth For Life which stems from his weekly Bible teaching at Parkside. He and his wife, Susan, have three grown children.
Alistair Begg Books | Go to Books Page
Commit thy ways to Him
Mr. President: Don’t Cave to Liberal Fearmongering. Protect Religious Freedom
By Ryan T. Anderson 2/2/2017
Liberals are up in arms over a possible executive order from President Donald Trump protecting religious freedom.
A draft copy of the executive order was leaked to LGBT groups and liberal media outlets in an attempt to prevent the president from issuing it.
But the president should not cave. He should stand up to the liberal outrage and hostility to ordinary American values that fueled his rise in the first place.
The executive order is good, lawful public policy. And it makes good on several promises then-candidate Trump made to his supporters.
Indeed, just this morning at the National Prayer Breakfast, Trump pledged, “My administration will do everything in its power to defend and protect religious liberty.” This executive order is the place to start.
Ryan T. Anderson is the William E. Simon Senior Research Fellow in American Principles and Public Policy at the Heritage Foundation, and the Founder and Editor of Public Discourse: Ethics, Law, and the Common Good, the online journal of the Witherspoon Institute in Princeton, NJ. A Phi Beta Kappa and magna cum laude graduate of Princeton University, he earned his Ph.D. in political philosophy from the University of Notre Dame. Anderson’s research has been cited by two U.S. Supreme Court justices in two Supreme Court cases.
His writings have appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, the Harvard Health Policy Review, the Weekly Standard, and National Review. Anderson has appeared on ABC, CNN, CNBC, MSNBC, and the Fox News Channel. In addition to a memorable 2013 debate about marriage on CNN's Piers Morgan Live, his news interviews include appearances on ABC's This Week with George Stephanopoulos, CNN's New Day with Chris Cuomo, MSNBC's The Ed Show with Ed Schultz, and Fox News' Hannity.
Ryan T. Anderson Books:
The Problem Of The Old Testament
By James Orr 1907
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VI - PRIESTS AND LEVITES
DR. DRIVER gives a reason for rejecting the view of the relation of priests and Levites indicated in the text, which, if it were valid, would be fatal; but which, as it stands, seems to us, we confess, an example of that overstraining which plays so large a part in these discussions. He writes: “The terms used in [ Deut. 18 ] to describe the Levite services are those used regularly of priestly duties. To minister in the name, as 18:5 (of the priest; cf. 17:12; 21:5); to stand before — i.e., to wait on (see, e.g., 1 Kings 10:8) — Jehovah, as Ezek. 44:15; Judg. 20:28; cf. Deut. 17:12; 18:5. (The Levites ‘stand before’ — i.e., wait upon—the congregation, Num. 16:9; Ezek. 44:11b. In 2 Chron. 29:11, priests are present; see 5:4).” We should not, of course, presume to differ from Dr. Driver on a question of philology or grammar; but this is a question of palpable fact, and invites examination. All Hebrew scholars, besides, are far from agreeing with Dr. Driver in the above dicta. The statement made, we venture to think, needs much qualification. It is not denied that the terms employed are appropriate to priestly duties; the question is whether they are used of these duties “regularly” and only. And this it is difficult to admit. The exact phrase “to minister in the name” is, so far as we know, found nowhere else than in vers. 5, 7, of this passage; but the verb itself, “minister” (sharēth) is used constantly in the law and in Chronicles of Levitical as well as of priestly service. The Levites, we read, shall be appointed over the tabernacle of the testimony, “and they shall minister to it”; aged Levites “shall minister with their brethren in the tent of meeting.” but shall do no service; the Levites “are chosen to carry the ark of God and to minister unto Him for ever”; they “minister before the ark of the covenant of Jehovah,” etc. In fact, the only use of the word “minister” in the Book of Numbers, if we are not mistaken, is with reference to the service of the Levites. With this may be compared Dr. Driver’s own note in his Deuteronomy, where the facts are stated more fully, but still, as we think, onesidedly. “To minister,” he there says, “is a less distinctive term, being used not only of priests, but also of Levites ( Num. 8:26), and other subordinate attendants, as in 1 Sam. 2:11, 18; 3:1 (of Samuel).” [We gather from this that Dr. Driver does not adopt Wellhausen’s theory that Samuel was a “priest.”] But then, what becomes of its peculiar force in Deuteronomy? For Samuel also ministered “to Jehovah”; so in 1 Chron. 15:2, etc. It does not fare better with the expression “to stand before Jehovah.” Apart from the passage quoted, it is used in Deuteronomy once of the tribe of Levi, and once of the Levitical priest. In the Levitical law it does not occur at all — a curious instance of “regularly.” On the other hand, in Chronicles, the Levites “stand every morning to thank and praise Jehovah, and likewise at even,” and “priests and Levites” are addressed together as “chosen to stand before Jehovah.” In Nehemiah also “priests and Levites” are spoken of together as those who “stood.” Can it be claimed that the case is made out?
CHAPTER VII - Difficulties and Perplexities of the Critical Hypothesis: I. The JE Analysis
“He His fabric of the Heavens
Hath left to their disputes; perhaps to move
His laughter at their quaint opinions wide
Hereafter, when they come to model Heaven
And calculate the stars; how they will wield
The mighty frame;—how build, contrive
To save appearances;—how gird the sphere
With centrick and eccentrick scribbled o’er,
Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb.”—MILTON.
“The history of critical investigation has shown that far too much weight has often been laid on agreement in the use of the divine names — so much so that it has twice led the critics wrong. It is well therefore to utter a warning against laying an exaggerated stress on this one phenomenon.” — KUENEN.
“No intelligent observer, however, will deny that the work of investigation has gone onwards, and not moved in a circle.” — DELITZSCH.
THUS far we have been content to proceed on the assumption of the correctness of the ordinary critical analysis of documents in the “Hexateuch,” and, without challenging either documents or dates, have endeavoured to show that, even on this basis, the essential facts of the history, and the outstanding features in the Biblical picture of the religion and institutions of Israel, remain unaffected. We now take a further step, and go on to inquire whether the critical theory of documents, as usually presented, is valid, and, if at all, how far. Here we part company with many, of whose help, in defending the truth of supernatural revelation, we have hitherto gladly availed ourselves, but who, we are compelled to think, have unnecessarily hampered themselves, and weakened their contentions, by assent to critical positions which are far from being solidly established. We shall still seek, as far as may be, common ground with these writers, and hope to show that, if we break with them, our doubts are born, not from an obstinate wedding of the mind to obsolete traditions, but from a sincere regard to the facts, as we are constrained to apprehend them.
It is not uncommon to find the course of criticism during the last century represented as purely a work of unbelief, resulting in hopeless error and confusion. That, however, is not altogether our opinion. If it cannot well be denied that, as before stated, what is called “Higher Criticism” was cradled in, and received its characteristic “set” from the older rationalism, and if, unfortunately, this vice of its origin has clung to it, more or less, in all its subsequent developments, it would be unreasonable not to acknowledge that it is also, in large part, the product of a genuinely scientific temper, and of a true perception of phenomena which are there in Scripture, and, on any theory, require explanation. Its course, too, has been marked by a real and continuous advance in the apprehension of these phenomena, and, with whatever mingling of error, has tended to an ever closer definition of the problem to be solved. A brief glance at the principal stadia in the history of the development will illustrate what we mean.
The Problem of the Old Testament
Prosperity and the Camp Fire
By Richard S. Adams
I remember Lily and I listening to a very popular preacher teaching on the blessings of God from Deuteronomy. We could hear his listeners applauding and voicing their approval. We all want to be blessed, but they remind me of the real estate infomercials that used to be on television late at night. That was years ago. Maybe they are still on, but I’m older now so I’m in bed by ten.
I believe God wants to bless us, but equating God’s blessings to Abraham’s land and wealth strikes me as short sighted. It is indeed part of the story, but when I hear a cheer leading message like this I am reminded of a message I heard Dr. Chuck Conniry give to a class of graduating MBA’s and PhD’s.
It was a time of jubilation; celebrating several years of hard work and sacrifice on the student’s part, but it had also been a time of sacrifice for their loved ones. Wives, children, parents and friends were gathered for this rite of passage. This would be a great time to deliver a message on the blessings of God, but instead, Chuck talked about what Jesus said to his disciples. “Pick up your cross and follow me.”
(Mt 16:24) 24 Then Jesus told his disciples, “If anyone would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. ESV
Chuck reminded the audience what kind of world these young and old pastors were entering. The October 2006 news was filled with the story of the Pennsylvania milk truck driver who shot eleven people and killed five girls.
Most of us don’t need an explanation of what Jesus meant by pick up your cross and follow me, certainly these graduating seminary students understood the theological, spiritual and personal meaning of these words. Jesus did not say, jump in your Lexus and follow me or even put on your backpack and follow me. No, he was quite clear when he said pick up your cross
Reality is sobering, but we have become masters of distraction. We come up with all kinds of ways to look the other way, put space between us and what we should be doing and worst of all, we intentionally put space between ourselves and others. It takes more and more to interrupt us from our daily entertainment and the gadgets that distract us.
We are quite delusional if we think an armful of wood will keep our camp fire burning all night. Whether the wood burns slowly or quickly, it still burns. Sooner or later those shadows just beyond the light of the camp fire will be upon us. What then?
Jesus told us we will have trouble. He spoke to any who would listen, but mostly it was those who had plenty of trouble who listened.
(Jn 16:33) I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.” ESV
Jesus said to love the Lord with all your heart and your neighbor as yourself. That’s trouble right there. Love the person who did this to me, said that about me, is always rude to me! Jesus said that all the law and all the commandments rest on loving the Lord and your neighbor with all your strength. Besides the pain in the neck I mentioned, it includes your in-laws and family members who always take advantage of you.
(Mt 22:37–40) 37 And he said to him, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. 38 This is the great and first commandment. 39 And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 40 On these two commandments depend all the Law and the Prophets.” ESV
Joel Osteen’s message, despite all the cheering in the background, is as hollow as the real estate infomercials that may or may not still be peddling their wares on television.
Jesus said that to whoever would and will listen. He also said the way is narrow and few would, will find it. All the cheers, pep rallies, and promises of abundance won’t stop the camp fire from finally burning out. What then?
(Ho 4:6) My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge;
because you have rejected knowledge,
I reject you from being a priest to me.
And since you have forgotten the law of your God,
I also will forget your children.
Richard S. Adams | Lover of Christ, husband of Lily, father of four, grandfather of eleven, Masters in Divinity and Certificate in Spiritual Direction. On staff at George Fox 1/2009 to 7/2018.
Jan 23 Potholes
Jan 24 The Hornet
Jan 26 Dealing With Disappointment
Jan 27 Lost
Jan 28 Life Support, A Non-Stop Flight
Feb 5 Prosperity and the Camp Fire
Feb 7 Job 6:14-23
Feb 10 Spontaneous Generation
Feb 14 Hindsight
Feb 18 The Cure For Despair
Feb 22 RE: Job's Friends
Feb 23 Job 23:14
Feb 25 No Time To Text
Mar 5 Polemics and Caricature
Apr 20 Death and My Master's Voice
Apr 26 The Unexpected Blessing Returns
May 10 Ruth | Relationships
June 18 Lincoln City 6/2/18
July 14 Tom - Gen & Revelation
July 15 Knowledge and World Peace
July 16 The Church as Lobbyist
Aug 3 Have You Noticed
Nov 27 The Way The World Is
Nov 30 The Renewal Of Israel
Dec 11 Open Door
Dec 20 Replacement Theology
The Pilgrim's Progress From This World To That Which Is To Come;
Delivered Under The Similitude Of A Dream
By John Bunyan 1678
THE FIFTH STAGETALK. Nay, my part is not now to object, but to hear; let me, therefore, have your second question.
FAITH. It is this: Do you experience this first part of the description of it; and doth your life and conversation testify the same? Or standeth your religion in word or tongue, and not in deed and truth? Pray, if you incline to answer me in this, say no more than you know the God above will say Amen to, and also nothing but what your conscience can justify you in; for not he that commendeth himself is approved, but whom the Lord commendeth. Besides, to say I am thus and thus, when my conversation, and all my neighbors, tell me I lie, is great wickedness.
Then Talkative at first began to blush; but, recovering himself, thus he replied: You come now to experience, to conscience, and to God; and to appeal to him for justification of what is spoken. This kind of discourse I did not expect; nor am I disposed to give an answer to such questions, because I count not myself bound thereto, unless you take upon you to be a catechiser; and though you should so do, yet I may refuse to make you my judge. But I pray, will you tell me why you ask me such questions?
FAITH. Because I saw you forward to talk, and because I knew not that you had aught else but notion. Besides, to tell you all the truth, I have heard of you that you are a man whose religion lies in talk, and that your conversation gives this your mouth-profession the lie. They say you are a spot among Christians, and that religion fareth the worse for your ungodly conversation; that some have already stumbled at your wicked ways, and that more are in danger of being destroyed thereby: your religion, and an ale-house, and covetousness, and uncleanness, and swearing, and lying, and vain company-keeping, etc., will stand together. The proverb is true of you which is said of a harlot, to wit, “That she is a shame to all women:” so are you a shame to all professors.
TALK. Since you are so ready to take up reports, and to judge so rashly as you do, I cannot but conclude you are some peevish or melancholy man, not fit to be discoursed with; and so adieu.
Then up came Christian, and said to his brother, I told you how it would happen; your words and his lusts could not agree. He had rather leave your company than reform his life. But he is gone, as I said: let him go; the loss is no man’s but his own. He has saved us the trouble of going from him; for he continuing (as I suppose he will do) as he is, would have been but a blot in our company: besides, the apostle says, “From such withdraw thyself.”
FAITH. But I am glad we had this little discourse with him; it may happen that he will think of it again: however, I have dealt plainly with him, and so am clear of his blood if he perisheth.
CHR. You did well to talk so plainly to him as you did. There is but little of this faithful dealing with men now-a-days, and that makes religion to stink so in the nostrils of many as it doth; for they are these talkative fools, whose religion is only in word, and who are debauched and vain in their conversation, that (being so much admitted into the fellowship of the godly) do puzzle the world, blemish Christianity, and grieve the sincere. I wish that all men would deal with such as you have done; then should they either be made more conformable to religion, or the company of saints would be too hot for them. Then did Faithful say,
“How Talkative at first lifts up his plumes!
How bravely doth he speak! How he presumes
To drive down all before him! But so soon
As Faithful talks of heart-work, like the moon
That’s past the full, into the wane he goes;
And so will all but he that heart-work know.”
Pilgrim's Progress (Illustrated): Updated, Modern English. More than 100 Illustrations.
The Continual Burnt Offering
By H.A. Ironside - 1941
February 5Judges 1:20 And Hebron was given to Caleb, as Moses had said. And he drove out from it the three sons of Anak. ESV
Hebron means fellowship or communion. It speaks of that happy state which is the inheritance of the man of faith who, by overcoming all difficulties, puts fellowship with God above every other good, and refuses to be kept out of its enjoyment by the hosts of evil. The world rulers of this darkness, the wicked spirits in the heavenlies seek to hinder the believer from the present possession of the privileges which are his in Christ Jesus (see Ephesians 6:12). Of old the Anakim under the command of Arba had held this citadel and called it the city of Arba. But faith expelled the giants who defied the will of God and turned a scene of idolatrous rites and wicked revels into a place for communion with God. These powerful enemies typified the wicked spirits against which the believer is called to battle today. No foe can withstand him who dons the whole armor of God and defies them in the power of the Holy Spirit.
Ephesians 6:12 For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places.
Numbers 14:24 But my servant Caleb, because he has a different spirit and has followed me fully, I will bring into the land into which he went, and his descendants shall possess it.
Deuteronomy 1:36 except Caleb the son of Jephunneh. He shall see it, and to him and to his children I will give the land on which he has trodden, because he has wholly followed the LORD!’
Joshua 14:9 And Moses swore on that day, saying, ‘Surely the land on which your foot has trodden shall be an inheritance for you and your children forever, because you have wholly followed the LORD my God.’ 10 And now, behold, the LORD has kept me alive, just as he said, these forty-five years since the time that the LORD spoke this word to Moses, while Israel walked in the wilderness. And now, behold, I am this day eighty-five years old. 11 I am still as strong today as I was in the day that Moses sent me; my strength now is as my strength was then, for war and for going and coming. 12 So now give me this hill country of which the LORD spoke on that day, for you heard on that day how the Anakim were there, with great fortified cities. It may be that the LORD will be with me, and I shall drive them out just as the LORD said.”
13 Then Joshua blessed him, and he gave Hebron to Caleb the son of Jephunneh for an inheritance. 14 Therefore Hebron became the inheritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this day, because he wholly followed the LORD, the God of Israel.
Joshua 15:13 According to the commandment of the LORD to Joshua, he gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh a portion among the people of Judah, Kiriath-arba, that is, Hebron (Arba was the father of Anak). 14 And Caleb drove out from there the three sons of Anak, Sheshai and Ahiman and Talmai, the descendants of Anak.
Joshua 21:11 They gave them Kiriath-arba (Arba being the father of Anak), that is Hebron, in the hill country of Judah, along with the pasturelands around it. 12 But the fields of the city and its villages had been given to Caleb the son of Jephunneh as his possession. ESV
Stand not in fear, thy adversaries counting,
Dare every peril, save to disobey;
Thou shalt march on, all obstacles surmounting,
For I, the Strong, will open up the way.
Wherefore go gladly to the task assigned thee.
Having My promise, needing nothing more
Than just to know, where’er the future find thee,
In all thy journeying I go before.
--- Frank J. Exley
The Continual Burnt Offering: Daily Meditations on the Word of God
The Witness Of The Scriptures To Moses’ Authorship
By Gleason Archer Jr.
1. The Pentateuch itself testifies to Moses as having composed it. We find these explicit statements (ASV): Exodus 17:14: “And Jehovah said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book … that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek.” Exodus 24:4: “And Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah”; and verse 7: “And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people.” Exodus 34:27: “And Jehovah said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.” Numbers 33:1–2: “These are the journeys of the children of Israel.… And Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys.” Deuteronomy 31:9: “And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests”; and verse 11: “When all Israel is come to appear before Jehovah thy God … thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing.” It is interesting to observe that Wellhausen, in his Prolegomena, nowhere (according to the index to the English edition, at least) discusses any of these five explicit references in the Torah to Moses’ writing of these portions of the Pentateuch. Where passages are found that conflict with Wellhausen’s theory, he simply passes them over in silence. Apparently he never even entertained the possibility of Moses
contributing a single word to the Pentateuch; certainly not the Ten Commandments nor Moses’ fashioning of the brazen serpent in Num. 21:9 (Prolegomena, p. 439), which for Wellhausen proved Moses was idolatrous.
2. In other Old Testament books we find such references as these: Joshua 1:8: “This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate thereon … that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein.” (In v. 7 this was described as “the law which Moses my servant commanded thee.”) Joshua 8:31: “As it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of unhewn stones—” (i.e., Ex. 20:25 ). In verse 32: “And he [Joshua] wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses.” 1 Kings 2:3: “And keep the charge of Jehovah … according to that which is written in the law of Moses” (David being the speaker here). 2 Kings 14:6 (referring to King Amaziah): “But the children of the murderers he put not to death; according to that which is written in the book of the law of Moses, as Jehovah commanded” (quoting Deut. 24:16). (The date of this episode was ca. 796 B.C.) 2 Kings 21:8 (referring to the reign of Manasseh, 696–642 B.C.): “If only they will observe to do … according to all the law that my servant Moses commanded them.” Other references are found in the Old Testament record from the time of Josiah onward (when, of course, Deuteronomy had been published, and possibly also JE, according to the Wellhausen hypothesis). The authorship of the Torah is always attributed personally to Moses. Such references are: Ezra 6:18; Neh. 13:1; Dan. 9:11–13; Mal. 4:4.
3. The New Testament also strongly affirms Mosaic authorship. Apart from the numerous references to the Torah as “Moses,” we select the following quotations which emphasize the personality of the historical Moses. Matthew 19:8: “Moses for your hardness of heart suffered you to put away your wives.” John 5:46–47: “For if ye believed Moses, ye would believe me; for he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?” John 7:19: “Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you doeth the law?” Acts 3:22: “Moses indeed said, A prophet shall the Lord God raise up unto you” (quoting from Deut. 18:15). Romans 10:5: “For Moses writeth that the man that doeth the righteousness” (quoting Lev. 18:5). It is hard to see how anyone can embrace the Documentary Theory (that Moses wrote not a word of the law) without attributing either falsehood or error to Christ and the apostles. Mark 12:26 states that God uttered to the historical Moses the words of Ex. 3:6.
But now we pass from the direct statements of Scripture itself concerning Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch to another line of evidence which is more indirect, but nonetheless almost as compelling. The most objective method of dating the composition of any written document is to examine its internal evidences. That is to say, by taking note of the incidental or casual allusions to contemporary historical events, to current issues, geographical or climatic conditions, to the prevalent flora and fauna, and to indications of eyewitness
participation, it is possible to come to a very accurate estimate of the place and date of composition. Judging therefore by the internal evidences of the Pentateuchal text, we are driven to the
conclusion that the author must have been originally a resident of Egypt (not of Palestine), a contemporary eyewitness of the Exodus and the wilderness wandering, and possessed of a very high degree of education, learning, and literary skill. No one else conforms to these qualifications as closely as Moses the son of Amram. We submit a brief summary of these evidences.
Other Internal Evidences
1. Eyewitness details appear in the account of the Exodus which suggest an actual participant in the events, but which would be altogether beyond the ken of an author who lived centuries after the event. For example, in Ex. 15:27 the narrator recalls the exact number of fountains (twelve) and of palm trees (seventy) at Elim. Numbers 11:7–8 gives the appearance and taste of the manna with which Jehovah fed Israel (no doubt for the benefit of coming generations in conquered Canaan, where Moses knew no manna would fall).
2. The author of Genesis and Exodus shows a thorough acquaintance with Egypt, as one would expect of a participant in the Exodus. He is familiar with Egyptian names, such as Ōn as the native name (hieroglyphic ʾwnw) for Heliopolis; Pithom for Pt-;tm (“The House of Atum”—a god); Potiphera’, for P;-dʾ-p;-R˓ (“The Bowman of Ra’ ” or the “sun-god”); Asenath for Ns-Nʾt (“The Favorite of Neith”—a goddess), Joseph’s wife; Moses for Mw-s8 (“Water-son”), or possibly a short form of Thutmose of Ahmose (since Egyptian subjects were often named after the reigning Pharaoh); the special title of honor bestowed on Joseph by Pharaoh: Zaphenathpa˓nēaḥ ( Gen. 41:45), which probably represents the Egyptian df nt p ˓nḫ is the way it would have been in hieroglyphic Egyptian — “Nourisher of the land of the Living One [Pharaoh].” (This explanation by Sayce and Yahuda, similar to that of Lieblein, accounts perfectly for all the Hebrew consonants: ṢPNTP˓NḤ. Furthermore, names compounded with this same ḏf; are known to have been common in Joseph’s period. The interpretation favored by Mallon, Steindorff, Barton, and Albright: ḏd p; nṯrʾ w∙f ˓nḫ—“The god speaks, he lives”—involves major deviations from the Hebrew consonants and does not make as good sense in the context of the situation.) A Survey of Old Testament Introduction
Devotionals, notes, poetry and more
Be ‘aware’ of God in your situation
2/5/2018 Bob Gass
‘I was not aware of it.’
(Ge 28:16) Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, “Surely the LORD is in this place, and I did not know it.” ESV
One night Jacob had a dream. He saw a ladder with angels on it extending all the way up to heaven, and God said to him, ‘I am with you and will watch over you wherever you go’ (v. 15 NIV 2011 Edition). The next morning Jacob said, ‘The Lord is in this place, and I was not aware of it.’ When it comes to recognising God at work in your life, you can be spiritually tuned in, or be like Jacob and not be ‘aware’ of Him. It was business as usual for Moses the day he noticed the burning bush – not an uncommon sight in a hot desert climate. Except this time the bush kept burning, and ‘when…he turned aside to look, God called to him’ (Exodus 3:4 NKJV). You’ll have some of your greatest encounters with God in the everyday experiences of life. But you have to be open and receptive, otherwise you’ll miss Him. Author William Barry says: ‘Whether we’re aware of it or not, at every moment of our existence we’re encountering God…who is trying to catch our attention…to draw us into a reciprocal conscious relationship.’ And you never know where He’ll appear, or through whom He’ll speak. After the resurrection, Mary Magdalene thought Jesus was just the gardener. Paul writes, ‘Wake up, sleeper’ (Ephesians 5:14 NIV). You can be awakened by a miraculous healing, a restored relationship, or even a great trial. Don’t just look for God in your triumphs; look for Him in your troubles too. Theologian Frederick Buechner said, ‘There is no event so commonplace but that God is present, leaving you room to recognise or not to recognise Him.’
UCB The Word For Today
by Bill Federer
Persecuted in England for preaching religious liberty, Roger Williams fled to Boston, arriving this day, February 5th, 1631. He pastored a short time in the Massachusetts Bay Colony only to be sentenced to be sent back to England for his opposition to the state church. He escaped and lived among the Narragansett Indians, befriending them and learning their language. They gave him the land upon which he founded Providence Plantation, Rhode Island. This was the first place ever where the freedom to worship was separated from the control of the state. In 1639, he organized the first Baptist Church in the new world.
Thomas R. Kelly
Again, we have quailed and been tormented in our obscurity, we have fretted and been anxious because of our limitations, set by our own nature and by our surroundings. The tasks are so great, and we have accomplished so little, and been assigned such lowly talents and occupations.
But instructed in one point of view of the paradox, we bestride the mountains or the valleys of earthly importance with a holy indifference, contempt, and detachment. Placed in coveted surroundings, recipients of honors, we count them as refuse, as nothing, utterly nothing. Placed in the shadows, we are happy to pick up a straw for the love of God. No task is so small as to distress us, no honor so great as to turn our heads.
Such loosening of the chains of attachment is easy, if we be given times of a sense of unutterable nearness to Himself. In those moments what would we not leave for Him? What mean honors or dishonors, comforts or wants, in Him? For some persons, in such moments, the work of detachment, contemptus mundi, exists chiefly as an intellectual obligation, ominously hovering over their heads as duty, but not known as experienced joy in the new freedom of utter poverty. Still others obstruct this detachment, reject it as absurd or unneeded, and cling to mammon while they seek to cling to God.
Double-mindedness in this matter is wholly destructive of the spiritual life. Totalitarian are the claims of Christ. No vestige of reservation of "our" rights can remain. Straddle arrangements and compromises between our allegiances to the surface level and the divine Center cannot endure. Unless the willingness is present to be stripped of our last earthly dignity and hope, and yet still praise Him, we have no message in this our day of refugees, bodily and spiritual. Nor have we yielded to the monitions of the Inner Instructor.
But actually completed detachment is vastly harder than intended detachment. Fugitive islands of secret reservations elude us. Rationalizations hide them. Intending absolute honesty, we can only bring ourselves steadfastly into His presence and pray, "Cleanse thou me from secret faults." And in the X-ray light of Eternity we may be given to see the dark spots of life, and divine grace may be given to reinforce our will to complete abandonment in Him. For the guidance of the Light is critical, acid, sharper than a two-edged sword. He asks all, but He gives all.
A Testament of Devotion
Compiled by Richard S. Adams
The only ground of hope for the continuance of our free institutions
is in the proper moral and religious training of the children.
--- President Zachary Taylor
Count not thyself to have found true peace,
if thou hast felt no grief;
nor that then all is well
if thou hast no adversary;
nor that this is perfect,
if all things fall out according to thy desire.
--- Thomas à Kempis
The Imitation of Christ
If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things.
--- Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Scripture, collecting in our minds the otherwise confused notions of deity, dispels the darkness and gives us a clear view of the true God. --- John Calvin
The Biblical Basis of Christian Counseling for People Helpers: Relating the Basic Teachings of Scripture to People's Problems (Pilgrimage Growth Guide)
... from here, there and everywhere
by D.H. Stern
pay attention to what I am saying.
25 Don’t let your heart turn to her ways;
don’t stray onto her paths.
26 For many are those she has struck down dead,
numerous those she has killed.
27 Her house is the way to Sh’ol;
it leads down to the halls of death.
Complete Jewish Bible : An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B'Rit Hadashah (New Testament)
A Daily Devotional by Oswald Chambers
Are you ready to be offered?
Yea, and if I be offered upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you all.
--- Phil. 2:17.
Are you willing to be offered for the work of the faithful—to pour out your life blood as a libation on the sacrifice of the faith of others? Or do you say—‘I am not going to be offered up just yet, I do not want God to choose my work. I want to choose the scenery of my own sacrifice; I want to have the right kind of people watching me and saying, “Well done.” ’
It is one thing to go on the lonely way with dignified heroism, but quite another thing if the line mapped out for you by God means being a door-mat under other people’s feet. Suppose God wants to teach you to say, “I know how to be abased”—are you ready to be offered up like that? Are you ready to be not so much as a drop in a bucket—to be so hopelessly insignificant that you are never thought of again in connection with the life you served? Are you willing to spend and be spent; not seeking to be ministered unto, but to minister? Some saints cannot do menial work and remain saints because it is beneath their dignity.
My Utmost for His Highest
the Poetry of R.S. Thomas
Remembering David Jones
Because you had been in the dark wood
and heard doom's nightingales sing,
men listened to you when you told
them how death is many but life
one. The shell's trumpet sounded
over the fallen, but there was no
resurrection. You learned your lettering
the propped capitals which described
how once they were human beings.
Men march because they are alive,
and their quest is the Grail, garrisoned
by the old furies so it is blood
wets their lips. Europe gave you
your words, but your hand practiced
an earlier language,
weaving time's branches
together to form the thicket the soldier
is caught in, who is love's sacrifice
to itself, with the virgin's smile poised
like a knife over it as over her first born.
The Poems of R.S. Thomas
Thomas A Kempis
Book One / Thoughts Helpful In The Life Of The Soul
The Fifth Chapter / Reading the Holy Scripture
TRUTH, not eloquence, is to be sought in reading the Holy Scriptures; and every part must be read in the spirit in which it was written. For in the Scriptures we ought to seek profit rather than polished diction.
Likewise we ought to read simple and devout books as willingly as learned and profound ones. We ought not to be swayed by the authority of the writer, whether he be a great literary light or an insignificant person, but by the love of simple truth. We ought not to ask who is speaking, but mark what is said. Men pass away, but the truth of the Lord remains forever. God speaks to us in many ways without regard for persons.
Our curiosity often impedes our reading of the Scriptures, when we wish to understand and mull over what we ought simply to read and pass by.
If you would profit from it, therefore, read with humility, simplicity, and faith, and never seek a reputation for being learned. Seek willingly and listen attentively to the words of the saints; do not be displeased with the sayings of the ancients, for they were not made without purpose.
The Imitation Of Christ
In the unit on Isaac and Jacob, we saw four ways to study the Old Testament. The story of Joseph lends itself to yet another study approach: the typological.
A type is an event, character, or institution which has a place and purpose in Bible history, but which also, by divine design, foreshadows the future.
For instance, Christ is sometimes called the “second Adam,” and in Romans 5:14 Adam is spoken of as a “pattern of the One to come.” There is no exact correspondence here. Yet Christ and Adam are alike in that each is the head of a race: Adam of sinful man; Christ of redeemed humanity. In regard to headship, Adam as the source of humankind does foreshadow Jesus, the source of mankind’s transformed brotherhood.
Another type is seen in the Passover lamb, the animal whose blood was sprinkled over the door of Jewish households at the time of Exodus. When the angel of death saw the blood on the doorposts, he passed over the blood-protected home. So 1 Corinthians says, “Christ, our Passover Lamb, has been sacrificed” (5:7). The helpless lamb, whose blood bought safety for an Old Testament generation, speaks to us of Jesus’ blood as well. Although it is a mistake to think of Jesus Christ as helpless!
A type, then, bears some resemblance in function or meaning in the original historical setting, to something or to someone yet to come.
Some Bible teachers have gone too far in seeking types of Christ or of Christian doctrines in the Old Testament. So we want to be careful in seeking typical significances. We never, for instance, build doctrine on types. What we do is to study carefully a historical setting for a basis of typical meaning. At times we’ll find areas of strong resemblance between Old Testament events or persons and features of the New Testament. And these correspondences will help us appreciate the meaning of truths which stand constant throughout the sweep of history as central elements in God’s plan.
But why speak of types and typology here? Because many Bible students have seen in Joseph’s life and mission many parallels to Christ. Rejected by his brothers, sold for silver, suffering in a foreign land for the good of those who betrayed him, Joseph does bear a striking resemblance to the Saviour. And Joseph’s forgiving spirit also foreshadows the attitude of Jesus, who one day would cry from a cross, “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing” (Luke 23:34).
If you have raced with men on foot and they have worn you out, how can you compete with horses?
--- Jeremiah 12:5.
Yes, unbelievably they come. ( When Life Tumbles In Then What? )
You remember our Lord’s story of two men who lived in the same village, went to the same synagogue, and one day, some kind of gale blew into their lives. In the one case, everything collapsed. For that unhappy soul had built on sand, and in his day of need, everything was undermined and vanished. But the other, though he, too, faced the emptiness, the loneliness, the pain, came through braver and stronger and mellower and nearer God. For he had built on the rock.
That has always been my chief difficulty about preaching. Thomas Carlyle said that the chirpy optimism of Emerson maddened him. “He seemed to me like a man, standing himself well back out of the least touch of the spray, who throws chatty observations on the beauty of the weather to a poor soul battling for his life in huge billows that are buffeting the breath and the life out of him, wrestling with mighty currents that keep sweeping him away.” It did not help.
I, too, have had a happy life, and always when I have spoken of the gospel and the love of God and Christ’s brave reading of this puzzling life, it has seemed that an easy answer lay ready to anybody who found these hard to credit. “Yes, yes,” they might well say irritably, “if I stood in the sunshine where you are, no doubt I, too, could talk like that! But if your path ran over the cold moors, where the winds cut to the very bone, if you were sat down where I am, I wonder if you would be so absolutely sure?” We will listen to Jesus Christ—for he spoke from the darkness round the cross. We may not understand him or agree with him or obey him, but nobody can challenge his right to speak. But you! Wait until you stand in the rushing of the Jordan. And what will you say then?
I will tell you now. I know that we are warned in Job that the most drastic test of faith is not even these tremendous sorrows but a long purgatory of physical and mental agony. Still, I do not think that anyone will challenge my right to speak today. I always thought greatly of the Christian faith, but I think more of it now, far more.
--- Arthur John Gossip
Take Heart: Daily Devotions with the Church's Great Preachers
To God Be the Glory
The hymns To God Be the Glory, Blessed Assurance, All the Way My Savior Leads Me, and He Hideth My Soul remind us that it’s never too late to begin serving Christ. Some people start as children, others as teens or young adults. But Moses was 80 when God commissioned him, and Paul was middle-aged. So was Fanny Crosby, author of the above hymns.
Fanny was born in a cottage in South East, New York, in 1820. Six weeks later, she caught a cold in her eyes, and a visiting doctor prescribed mustard poultices, leaving her virtually blind for life. Growing into childhood, she determined to make the best of it, writing at age eight: O what a happy soul I am! / Although I cannot see, I am resolved that in this world contented I will be.
Fanny spent many years in New York’s Institution for the Blind, first as a student, then as a teacher and writer-in-residence. Her career flourished; her fame swelled. She recited her poems before Congress and became friends with the most powerful people in America, including presidents.
But not until 1851 did Fanny meet her greatest friend, the Lord Jesus. While attending a revival meeting at John Street Methodist Church in New York, she later recalled, a prayer was offered, and “they began to sing the grand old consecration hymn, ‘Alas! And Did My Savior Bleed?’ and when they reached the line, ‘Here, Lord, I give myself away,’ my very soul was flooded with celestial light.”
Fourteen years later she met the hymnist William Bradbury, who told her, “Fanny, I thank God we have met, for I think you can write hymns.” Bradbury suggested an idea for a song he needed, and on February 5, 1864, Fanny Crosby, seizing his idea, wrote: We are going, we are going / To a home beyond the skies / Where the fields are robed in beauty / And the sunlight never dies.
It was her first hymn, and she was 44. But by the time she reached her “home beyond the skies” 50 years later, she had written 8,000 more.
I will start playing my harps before the sun rises. I will praise you, LORD, for everyone to hear; I will sing hymns to you in every nation. Your love reaches higher than the heavens, And your loyalty extends beyond the clouds. --- Psalm 108:2-4.
On This Day 365 Amazing And Inspiring Stories About Saints, Martyrs And Heroes
Daily Readings / CHARLES H. SPURGEON
Morning - February 5
“The Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world.” --- 1 John 4:14.
It is a sweet thought that Jesus Christ did not come forth without his Father’s permission, authority, consent, and assistance. He was sent of the Father, that he might be the Saviour of men. We are too apt to forget that, while there are distinctions as to the persons in the Trinity, there are no distinctions of honour. We too frequently ascribe the honour of our salvation, or at least the depths of its benevolence, more to Jesus Christ than we do the Father. This is a very great mistake. What if Jesus came? Did not his Father send him? If he spake wondrously, did not his Father pour grace into his lips, that he might be an able minister of the new covenant? He who knoweth the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost as he should know them, never setteth one before another in his love; he sees them at Bethlehem, at Gethsemane, and on Calvary, all equally engaged in the work of salvation. O Christian, hast thou put thy confidence in the Man Christ Jesus? Hast thou placed thy reliance solely on him? And art thou united with him? Then believe that thou art united unto the God of heaven. Since to the Man Christ Jesus thou art brother, and holdest closest fellowship, thou art linked thereby with God the Eternal, and “the Ancient of days” is thy Father and thy friend. Didst thou ever consider the depth of love in the heart of Jehovah, when God the Father equipped his Son for the great enterprise of mercy? If not, be this thy day’s meditation. The Father sent him! Contemplate that subject. Think how Jesus works what the Father wills. In the wounds of the dying Saviour see the love of the great I AM. Let every thought of Jesus be also connected with the Eternal, ever-blessed God, for “It pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief.”
Evening - February 5
“At that time Jesus answered.” --- Matthew 11:25.
This is a singular way in which to commence a verse—“At that time Jesus answered.” If you will look at the context you will not perceive that any person had asked him a question, or that he was in conversation with any human being. Yet it is written, “Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father.” When a man answers, he answers a person who has been speaking to him. Who, then, had spoken to Christ? his Father. Yet there is no record of it; and this should teach us that Jesus had constant fellowship with his Father, and that God spake into his heart so often, so continually, that it was not a circumstance singular enough to be recorded. It was the habit and life of Jesus to talk with God. Even as Jesus was, in this world, so are we; let us therefore learn the lesson which this simple statement concerning him teaches us. May we likewise have silent fellowship with the Father, so that often we may answer him, and though the world wotteth not to whom we speak, may we be responding to that secret voice unheard of any other ear, which our own ear, opened by the Spirit of God, recognizes with joy. God has spoken to us, let us speak to God—either to set our seal that God is true and faithful to his promise, or to confess the sin of which the Spirit of God has convinced us, or to acknowledge the mercy which God’s providence has given, or to express assent to the great truths which God the Holy Ghost has opened to our understanding. What a privilege is intimate communion with the Father of our spirits! It is a secret hidden from the world, a joy with which even the nearest friend intermeddleth not. If we would hear the whispers of God’s love, our ear must be purged and fitted to listen to his voice. This very evening may our hearts be in such a state, that when God speaks to us, we, like Jesus, may be prepared at once to answer him.
Morning and Evening
IMMORTAL LOVE–FOREVER FULL
John Greenleaf Whittier, 1807–1892
To know this love that surpasses knowledge—that you may be filled to the measure of all the fullness of God. (Ephesians 3:19)
Love is Silence—when your words would hurt.
Love is Patience—when your neighbor’s curt.
Love is Deafness—when a scandal flows.
Love is Thoughtfulness—for others’ woes.
Love is Promptness—when stern duty calls.
Love is Courage—when misfortune falls.
The Bible teaches that the three cardinal virtues of the Christian life are faith, hope, love, with love as the greatest (1 Corinthians 13:13). These virtues in a person’s life are the most convincing evidences of a personal relationship with Christ. True faith must always lead to a life of love for God and others. It also gives purpose for this life and the glorious hope of spending eternity with our King of Love. Our love relationship with others should be characterized as sacrificial, sensitive, and sharing. We should relate to people even as Jesus did. He loved individuals simply for themselves and met and accepted them at the place of their personal need.
In 1867 John Greenleaf Whittier, a Quaker and recognized as one of America’s finest poets, wrote a 38 stanza poem titled “Our Master.” This hymn text with its emphasis upon the constancy of God’s immortal love was taken from that poem. It was Whittier who once stated “a good hymn is the best use to which poetry can be directed.” The musical setting by William V. Wallace, a Scottish violinist and composer, was adapted from a longer love song, “Waft, Ye Winds,” written by Wallace in 1856.
Immortal Love—forever full, forever flowing free, forever shared, forever whole, a never ebbing sea!
We may not climb the heav’nly steeps to bring the Lord Christ down; in vain we search the lowest deeps, for Him no depths can drown.
But warm, sweet, tender, even yet a present help is He; and faith has still its Olivet, and love its Galilee.
The healing of His seamless dress is by our beads of pain; we touch Him in life’s throng and press, and we are whole again.
Thru Him the first fond prayers are said our lips of childhood frame; the last low whispers of our dead are burdened with His name.
O Lord and Master of us all, whate’er our name or sign, we own Thy sway, we hear Thy call, we test our lives by Thine!
For Today: Psalm 139; Jeremiah 31:3; Romans 8:38, 39; 1 John 4:19.
Reflect on the constancy of our Lord’s immortal love as you meditate on this thoughtful hymn text. ---
Amazing Grace: 366 Inspiring Hymn Stories for Daily Devotions
Mark Bailey, Mark Yarbrough, Darrell Bock
Dallas Theological Seminary
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