1 Samuel 21 - 24
1 Samuel 21
David and the Holy Bread1 Samuel 21:1 Then David came to Nob to Ahimelech the priest. And Ahimelech came to meet David trembling and said to him, “Why are you alone, and no one with you?” 2 And David said to Ahimelech the priest, “The king has charged me with a matter and said to me, ‘Let no one know anything of the matter about which I send you, and with which I have charged you.’ I have made an appointment with the young men for such and such a place. 3 Now then, what do you have on hand? Give me five loaves of bread, or whatever is here.” 4 And the priest answered David, “I have no common bread on hand, but there is holy bread—if the young men have kept themselves from women.” 5 And David answered the priest, “Truly women have been kept from us as always when I go on an expedition. The vessels of the young men are holy even when it is an ordinary journey. How much more today will their vessels be holy?” 6 So the priest gave him the holy bread, for there was no bread there but the bread of the Presence, which is removed from before the LORD, to be replaced by hot bread on the day it is taken away.
7 Now a certain man of the servants of Saul was there that day, detained before the LORD. His name was Doeg the Edomite, the chief of Saul’s herdsmen.
8 Then David said to Ahimelech, “Then have you not here a spear or a sword at hand? For I have brought neither my sword nor my weapons with me, because the king’s business required haste.” 9 And the priest said, “The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom you struck down in the Valley of Elah, behold, it is here wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod. If you will take that, take it, for there is none but that here.” And David said, “There is none like that; give it to me.”
David Flees to Gath10 And David rose and fled that day from Saul and went to Achish the king of Gath. 11 And the servants of Achish said to him, “Is not this David the king of the land? Did they not sing to one another of him in dances,
‘Saul has struck down his thousands,
and David his ten thousands’?”
12 And David took these words to heart and was much afraid of Achish the king of Gath. 13 So he changed his behavior before them and pretended to be insane in their hands and made marks on the doors of the gate and let his spittle run down his beard. 14 Then Achish said to his servants, “Behold, you see the man is mad. Why then have you brought him to me? 15 Do I lack madmen, that you have brought this fellow to behave as a madman in my presence? Shall this fellow come into my house?”
1 Samuel 22
David at the Cave of Adullam1 Samuel 22:1 David departed from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam. And when his brothers and all his father’s house heard it, they went down there to him. 2 And everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was bitter in soul, gathered to him. And he became commander over them. And there were with him about four hundred men.
3 And David went from there to Mizpeh of Moab. And he said to the king of Moab, “Please let my father and my mother stay with you, till I know what God will do for me.” 4 And he left them with the king of Moab, and they stayed with him all the time that David was in the stronghold. 5 Then the prophet Gad said to David, “Do not remain in the stronghold; depart, and go into the land of Judah.” So David departed and went into the forest of Hereth.
Saul Kills the Priests at Nob6 Now Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men who were with him. Saul was sitting at Gibeah under the tamarisk tree on the height with his spear in his hand, and all his servants were standing about him. 7 And Saul said to his servants who stood about him, “Hear now, people of Benjamin; will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards, will he make you all commanders of thousands and commanders of hundreds, 8 that all of you have conspired against me? No one discloses to me when my son makes a covenant with the son of Jesse. None of you is sorry for me or discloses to me that my son has stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day.” 9 Then answered Doeg the Edomite, who stood by the servants of Saul, “I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, 10 and he inquired of the LORD for him and gave him provisions and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.”
11 Then the king sent to summon Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father’s house, the priests who were at Nob, and all of them came to the king. 12 And Saul said, “Hear now, son of Ahitub.” And he answered, “Here I am, my lord.” 13 And Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, in that you have given him bread and a sword and have inquired of God for him, so that he has risen against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?” 14 Then Ahimelech answered the king, “And who among all your servants is so faithful as David, who is the king’s son-in-law, and captain over your bodyguard, and honored in your house? 15 Is today the first time that I have inquired of God for him? No! Let not the king impute anything to his servant or to all the house of my father, for your servant has known nothing of all this, much or little.” 16 And the king said, “You shall surely die, Ahimelech, you and all your father’s house.” 17 And the king said to the guard who stood about him, “Turn and kill the priests of the LORD, because their hand also is with David, and they knew that he fled and did not disclose it to me.” But the servants of the king would not put out their hand to strike the priests of the LORD. 18 Then the king said to Doeg, “You turn and strike the priests.” And Doeg the Edomite turned and struck down the priests, and he killed on that day eighty-five persons who wore the linen ephod. 19 And Nob, the city of the priests, he put to the sword; both man and woman, child and infant, ox, donkey and sheep, he put to the sword.
20 But one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped and fled after David. 21 And Abiathar told David that Saul had killed the priests of the LORD. 22 And David said to Abiathar, “I knew on that day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Saul. I have occasioned the death of all the persons of your father’s house. 23 Stay with me; do not be afraid, for he who seeks my life seeks your life. With me you shall be in safekeeping.”
1 Samuel 23
David Saves the City of Keilah1 Samuel 23:1 Now they told David, “Behold, the Philistines are fighting against Keilah and are robbing the threshing floors.” 2 Therefore David inquired of the LORD, “Shall I go and attack these Philistines?” And the LORD said to David, “Go and attack the Philistines and save Keilah.” 3 But David’s men said to him, “Behold, we are afraid here in Judah; how much more then if we go to Keilah against the armies of the Philistines?” 4 Then David inquired of the LORD again. And the LORD answered him, “Arise, go down to Keilah, for I will give the Philistines into your hand.” 5 And David and his men went to Keilah and fought with the Philistines and brought away their livestock and struck them with a great blow. So David saved the inhabitants of Keilah.
6 When Abiathar the son of Ahimelech had fled to David to Keilah, he had come down with an ephod in his hand. 7 Now it was told Saul that David had come to Keilah. And Saul said, “God has given him into my hand, for he has shut himself in by entering a town that has gates and bars.” 8 And Saul summoned all the people to war, to go down to Keilah, to besiege David and his men. 9 David knew that Saul was plotting harm against him. And he said to Abiathar the priest, “Bring the ephod here.” 10 Then David said, “O LORD, the God of Israel, your servant has surely heard that Saul seeks to come to Keilah, to destroy the city on my account. 11 Will the men of Keilah surrender me into his hand? Will Saul come down, as your servant has heard? O LORD, the God of Israel, please tell your servant.” And the LORD said, “He will come down.” 12 Then David said, “Will the men of Keilah surrender me and my men into the hand of Saul?” And the LORD said, “They will surrender you.” 13 Then David and his men, who were about six hundred, arose and departed from Keilah, and they went wherever they could go. When Saul was told that David had escaped from Keilah, he gave up the expedition. 14 And David remained in the strongholds in the wilderness, in the hill country of the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought him every day, but God did not give him into his hand.
Saul Pursues David15 David saw that Saul had come out to seek his life. David was in the wilderness of Ziph at Horesh. 16 And Jonathan, Saul’s son, rose and went to David at Horesh, and strengthened his hand in God. 17 And he said to him, “Do not fear, for the hand of Saul my father shall not find you. You shall be king over Israel, and I shall be next to you. Saul my father also knows this.” 18 And the two of them made a covenant before the LORD. David remained at Horesh, and Jonathan went home.
19 Then the Ziphites went up to Saul at Gibeah, saying, “Is not David hiding among us in the strongholds at Horesh, on the hill of Hachilah, which is south of Jeshimon? 20 Now come down, O king, according to all your heart’s desire to come down, and our part shall be to surrender him into the king’s hand.” 21 And Saul said, “May you be blessed by the LORD, for you have had compassion on me. 22 Go, make yet more sure. Know and see the place where his foot is, and who has seen him there, for it is told me that he is very cunning. 23 See therefore and take note of all the lurking places where he hides, and come back to me with sure information. Then I will go with you. And if he is in the land, I will search him out among all the thousands of Judah.” 24 And they arose and went to Ziph ahead of Saul.
Now David and his men were in the wilderness of Maon, in the Arabah to the south of Jeshimon. 25 And Saul and his men went to seek him. And David was told, so he went down to the rock and lived in the wilderness of Maon. And when Saul heard that, he pursued after David in the wilderness of Maon. 26 Saul went on one side of the mountain, and David and his men on the other side of the mountain. And David was hurrying to get away from Saul. As Saul and his men were closing in on David and his men to capture them, 27 a messenger came to Saul, saying, “Hurry and come, for the Philistines have made a raid against the land.” 28 So Saul returned from pursuing after David and went against the Philistines. Therefore that place was called the Rock of Escape. 29 And David went up from there and lived in the strongholds of Engedi.
1 Samuel 24
David Spares Saul’s Life1 Samuel 24:1 When Saul returned from following the Philistines, he was told, “Behold, David is in the wilderness of Engedi.” 2 Then Saul took three thousand chosen men out of all Israel and went to seek David and his men in front of the Wildgoats’ Rocks. 3 And he came to the sheepfolds by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to relieve himself. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave. 4 And the men of David said to him, “Here is the day of which the LORD said to you, ‘Behold, I will give your enemy into your hand, and you shall do to him as it shall seem good to you.’ ” Then David arose and stealthily cut off a corner of Saul’s robe. 5 And afterward David’s heart struck him, because he had cut off a corner of Saul’s robe. 6 He said to his men, “The LORD forbid that I should do this thing to my lord, the LORD’s anointed, to put out my hand against him, seeing he is the LORD’s anointed.” 7 So David persuaded his men with these words and did not permit them to attack Saul. And Saul rose up and left the cave and went on his way.
8 Afterward David also arose and went out of the cave, and called after Saul, “My lord the king!” And when Saul looked behind him, David bowed with his face to the earth and paid homage. 9 And David said to Saul, “Why do you listen to the words of men who say, ‘Behold, David seeks your harm’? 10 Behold, this day your eyes have seen how the LORD gave you today into my hand in the cave. And some told me to kill you, but I spared you. I said, ‘I will not put out my hand against my lord, for he is the LORD’s anointed.’ 11 See, my father, see the corner of your robe in my hand. For by the fact that I cut off the corner of your robe and did not kill you, you may know and see that there is no wrong or treason in my hands. I have not sinned against you, though you hunt my life to take it. 12 May the LORD judge between me and you, may the LORD avenge me against you, but my hand shall not be against you. 13 As the proverb of the ancients says, ‘Out of the wicked comes wickedness.’ But my hand shall not be against you. 14 After whom has the king of Israel come out? After whom do you pursue? After a dead dog! After a flea! 15 May the LORD therefore be judge and give sentence between me and you, and see to it and plead my cause and deliver me from your hand.”
16 As soon as David had finished speaking these words to Saul, Saul said, “Is this your voice, my son David?” And Saul lifted up his voice and wept. 17 He said to David, “You are more righteous than I, for you have repaid me good, whereas I have repaid you evil. 18 And you have declared this day how you have dealt well with me, in that you did not kill me when the LORD put me into your hands. 19 For if a man finds his enemy, will he let him go away safe? So may the LORD reward you with good for what you have done to me this day. 20 And now, behold, I know that you shall surely be king, and that the kingdom of Israel shall be established in your hand. 21 Swear to me therefore by the LORD that you will not cut off my offspring after me, and that you will not destroy my name out of my father’s house.” 22 And David swore this to Saul. Then Saul went home, but David and his men went up to the stronghold.
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What I'm Reading
The Birth Pains of the North American Church
By Mandy Smith 3/30/2017
It’s a painful time to be an evangelical Christian in North America.
Sometimes it might feel like it would be easier to just leave the Church, the faith or the country. For years I’ve felt the pain but I’m beginning to see it with new eyes.
I watched the healing begin as I read Barbara Brown Taylor’s distinction between pain and suffering. She says that, while Job has the pain of his actual situation, what was worse was the suffering of feeling forsaken. Our interpretation of pain as forsakenness is often worse than the actual situation that causes the pain.
Originally from Australia, Mandy Smith is lead pastor of University Christian Church, a campus and neighborhood congregation with its own fair-trade café in Cincinnati, Ohio. She is a contributing editor for Leadership Journal and the author of Making a Mess and Meeting God: Unruly Ideas and Everyday Experiments for Worship. Her latest book is The Vulnerable Pastor: How Human Limitations Empower Our Ministry. Mandy and her husband Jamie, a New Testament professor at Cincinnati Christian University, live with their two kids in a little house where the teapot is always warm.
General Rules of Biblical Interpretation
By John F. Walvoord
Though the interpretation of the Bible is an exceedingly complex problem, if certain general rules are followed, they will keep the interpreter from misunderstanding Scripture.
1. In approaching Scripture, first of all there must be study of the words that are used, their general usages, variety of meaning, historical context, theological context, and any determination of the probable meaning of the word used in a particular context.
2. Words in Scripture are used in a grammatical context that should be observed, including such matters as whether the word is used in a statement of fact, a command, a desired goal, or an application to a particular situation.
3. In any interpretation it is most important to decipher to whom the Scripture is addressed, as this involves the application of the statement.
4. Scripture should never be interpreted in isolation from its context. I believe scripture will never contrdict scripture. If you have a contradiction you need to keep comparing scriptures until the Lord shows you the interpretation. Careful thought should be given to the immediate context, the general context, and the context of the whole of Scripture. This will serve to relate the revelation contained to other divine revelations.
5. The literary character of the Scripture interpreted should be taken into consideration as the Bible is written in a variety of literary styles—such as history, poetry, worship, prediction—and uses a variety of figures of speech. These factors determine the interpretation of a particular text.
6. If ( If ?? ) the Scripture is inspired by the Holy Spirit and without error, it is important to compare any particular text to all other Scripture that might be relative. For instance, the book of Revelation may often be interpreted through a study of the book of Daniel. One Scripture will serve to cast light on other Scriptures.
7. Though the Bible is largely written in factual style to be interpreted as a normal, factual presentation, the Bible, like all other literature, uses figures of speech, and they should be recognized for their intended meaning. All forms of biblical literature ultimately yield a factual truth.
8. In interpreting the Bible, one must seek the guidance of the indwelling Holy Spirit who casts light on the Scriptures and guides its interpretation.
Why I removed Auustine's City Of God
By John F. Walvoord
In the history of the church, the eschatological or prophetic portions of Scripture have suffered more from inadequate interpretation than any other major theological subject. The reason for this is that the church turned aside from a normal and grammatical literal interpretation of prophecy to one that is nonliteral and subject to the caprice of the interpreter. This false approach to interpreting prophecy is contradicted beyond question by the fact that so many hundreds of prophecies have already been literally fulfilled.
In the first two centuries of the Christian era the church was predominantly premillennial, interpreting Scripture to teach that Christ would fulfill the prophecy of His second coming to bring a thousand-year reign on earth before the eternal state will begin. This was considered normal in orthodox theology. The early interpretation of prophecy was not always cogent and sometimes fanciful, but for the most part, prophecy was treated the same way as other Scripture.
In the last ten years of the second century and in the third century, the heretical school of theology at Alexandria, Egypt, advanced the erroneous principle that the Bible should be interpreted in a nonliteral or allegorical sense. In applying this principle to the Scriptures, they subverted all the major doctrines of the faith, including prophecy. The early church rose up and emphatically denied the Alexandrian system and to a large extent restored the interpretation of Scripture to its literal, grammatical, historical sense. The problem was that in prophecy there were predictions that had not yet been fulfilled. This made it more difficult to prove that literal fulfillment was true of prophecy. The result was somewhat catastrophic for the idea of a literal interpretation of prophecy, and the church floundered in the area of interpretation of the future.
Augustine (AD 354–430) rescued the church from uncertainty as far as nonprophetic Scripture is concerned, but continued to treat prophecy in a nonliteral way with the purpose of eliminating a millennial kingdom on earth. And this is why I removed City of God from my website. Strangely, Augustine held to a literal second coming, a literal heaven and a literal hell, but not to a literal millennium. This arbitrary distinction has never been explained.
Because amillennialism, which denies a literal millennial kingdom on earth following the second coming, is essentially negative and hinders intelligent literal interpretation of prophecy, there was little progress in this area. The church continued to believe in heaven and hell and purgatory, but neglected or explained away long passages having to deal with Israel in prophecy and the kingdom on earth as frequently revealed in the Old Testament. Even in the Protestant Reformation, prophecy was not rescued from this hindrance in its interpretation.
Though remnants of the church still advanced the premillennial view, it was not until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that a movement to restore the literal truth of prophecy began to take hold. The twentieth century was especially significant in the progress of prophetic interpretation in that many details of prophecy were debated and clarified in a way that was not possible before. Though amillennialism continues to be the majority view of the church, among those who hold a high view of Scripture the premillennial interpretation has been given detailed exposition, serving to provide an intelligent view of the present and the future from the standpoint of biblical prophecy.
The importance of prophecy should be evident, even superficially, in examining the Christian faith, for about one-fourth of the Bible was written as prophecy. It is evident that God intended to draw aside the veil of the future and to give some indication of what His plans and purposes were for the human race and for the universe as a whole. The neglect and misinterpretation of Scriptures supporting the premillennial interpretation is now to some extent being corrected.
In the nature of Christian faith a solid hope for the future is essential. Christianity without a future would not be basic Christianity. In contrast to the eschatology of heathen religions, which often paint the future in a forbidding way, Christianity’s hope is bright and clear and offers a Christian the basic idea that the life to come is better than this present life. As Paul stated in 2 Corinthians 5:8, “We are confident, I say, and would prefer to be away from the body and at home with the Lord.” In the Christian faith the future is painted as one of bliss and happiness in the presence of the Lord without the ills that are common to this life.
The revelation of prophecy in Scripture serves as important evidence that the Scriptures are accurate in their interpretation of the future. Because approximately half of the prophecies of the Bible have already been fulfilled in a literal way, it gives a proper intellectual basis for assuming that prophecy yet to be fulfilled will likewise have a literal fulfillment. At the same time it justifies the conclusion that the Bible is inspired of the Holy Spirit and that prophecy, which goes far beyond any scheme of man, is instead a revelation by God of that which is certain to come to pass. The fact that prophecy has been literally fulfilled serves as a guide to interpret the prophecies that are yet ahead.
Scriptural prophecy, properly interpreted, also provides a guideline for establishing the value of human conduct and the things that pertain to this life. For a Christian, the ultimate question is whether God considers what he is doing of value or not, in contrast to the world’s system of values, which is largely materialistic.
Prophecy is also a support for the scriptural revelation of the righteousness of God and a support for the assertion that the Christian faith has an integral relationship to morality. Obviously, the present life does not demonstrate fully the righteousness of God as many wicked situations are not actively judged. Scripture that is prophetic in dealing with this indicates that every act will be brought into divine judgment according to the infinite standard of the holy God, and accordingly, prophecy provides a basis for morality based on the character of God Himself.
Prophecy also provides a guide to the meaning of history. Though philosophers will continue to debate a philosophy of history, the Bible indicates that history is the unfolding of God’s plan and purpose for revealing Himself and manifesting His love and grace and righteousness in a way that would be impossible without human history. In the Christian faith, history reaches its climax in God’s plan for the future in which the earth in its present situation will be destroyed, and a new earth will be created. A proper interpretation of prophecy serves to support and enhance all others areas of theology, and without a proper interpretation of prophecy all other areas to some extent become incomplete revelation.
In attempting to communicate the meaning of Scripture relative to the prophetic past and future, prophecy serves to bring light and understanding to many aspects of our present life as well as our future hope. In an effort to understand and interpret prophecy correctly as a justifiable theological exercise, it is necessary to establish a proper base for interpretation.
General Assumptions in Biblical Interpretation
By John F. Walvoord
As in all sciences, theology is based on assumptions. Mankind finds itself living in an ordered world with observable natural laws and evidence of design. The nature of the ordered world in which we live reveals an evident interrelationship of purposes requiring the existence of a God who is infinite in power, rational, and has the basic elements of personality, intellect, sensibility, and will. The observable facts of nature as well as revelation through Scripture must be consistent with such a God. These facts, organized into a rational system, are the substance of theology, making it a science embracing revealed facts about God, creation, and history. To the observable facts in nature, Scripture reveals the additional truth that the God of history is gracious, holy, loving, patient, faithful, good, and has infinite attributes of knowledge, power, and rational purpose.
What is true of theology as a whole is especially true of biblical interpretation. In approaching the interpretation of the Bible, at least four assumptions are essential.
1. In order to have a coherent and consistent interpretation of the Bible, it is necessary to assume that there is ample proof that the Bible was inspired by the Holy Spirit and that the human authors were guided in the writing of Scripture and in the selection of the very words that they used. Accordingly, the Bible is an inerrant revelation containing all the truth that God intended to be included and excluding all facts that were not intended to be included. As the inspired Word of God, it should be expected that, properly interpreted, the Bible does not contradict itself.
2 Timothy 3:16 (KJV 1900) 16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:
2. The Bible was intended to communicate truth about God and the universe, to record historical facts, to reveal ethical principles, to provide wisdom for human judgments, to reveal moral and material values, and to provide prediction of future events.
3. The Bible progressively reveals the truth of God in such a way that changes in the moral rule of life are recognized, such as the contrast between the Mosaic law and the present age of grace. Later revelation may replace earlier revelation as a standard of faith without contradicting it.
4. Though the Bible is an unusual book, in many respects it is a normative piece of literature, using words to convey truth, and yet providing a great variety of literary forms, such as history, poetry, and prophecy, and sometimes using normal figures of speech. Though a supernatural book, the Bible nevertheless speaks in normative ways that can be illustrated in literature outside the Bible.
The Power of a Praying Mother (Christian Men and Their Godly Moms)
By Tim Challies 4/01/2017
For the past several months, I have been searching through the long and storied history of the church to find examples of Christian men who had godly moms. More specifically, I have been searching for notable Christian men whose most important spiritual influence was their mother. I have discovered many of them and have been deeply encouraged by their stories.
In the first article, we examined the life of John Newton, whose mother proved that spiritual strength can exist even where there is physical frailty. This time, I want to look at a great missionary who impacted an entire nation and the very course of Christian missions. To tell his story properly, we must begin with the deep spiritual crisis he endured in his teenage years, when he found himself unexpectedly torn between God and the world, drawn to the allure of wealth. It was in this moment of excruciating crisis that Hudson Taylor came to learn the power of a praying mother.
Hudson Taylor was born on May 21, 1832, in Barnsley, England, the firstborn child of James and Amelia. James was a chemist. He had desired to be a doctor but, as the family was unable to pay for medical school, had settled for pharmacology. Raised in a believing home, he became a committed Christian at a young age and developed a deep love for Scripture and theology. When he was still a child, his parents moved to a home close to Wesleyan minister Benjamin Hudson. James quickly befriended the minister’s daughter, Amelia, despite being six years her senior.
Tim Challies: I am a Christian, a husband to Aileen and a father to three children aged 10 to 16. I worship and serve as an elder at Grace Fellowship Church in Toronto, Ontario. I am a book reviewer, co-founder of Cruciform Press.
I began my web site in 2002 and have been writing there daily since 2003. It is my place to think out loud and in public while also sharing some of the interesting things I’ve discovered in my online travels.
Tim Challies is founding blogger of Challies.com and a pastor at Grace Fellowship Church in Toronto. You can follow him on Twitter @Challies. He began his web site in 2002 and has been writing there daily since 2003. It is his place to think out loud and in public while also sharing some of the interesting things he discovers in his online travels.
Tim Challies Books | Go to Books Page
Confronting the Lies when Suffering Leaves You Lonely
By Sarah Walton 3/27/2017
Many roads of suffering are incredibly lonely ones.
I remember when we began realizing that my eldest son struggled in ways that other children seemed not to. From a young age, he began displaying behavior that was defiant and destructive, and has caused a decade of confusion and chaos in our home. Countless doctors, tests, and evaluations seemed to leave doctors shaking their heads.
As the struggles turned into life-altering challenges, I left social events, stores, and church feeling increasingly lonely. I was on a scary journey that it seemed no one else could relate to. I found myself pulling away from those I cared about, staying home, and pushing down the stress and emotional turmoil building within me. No one could truly enter into the pain, heartache, and loneliness growing in my home and within my heart.
But—and I still find this surprising, and wonderful—over these lonely years I have discovered within me a thankfulness for the lonely road I have been given to travel. Walking it has brought me a greater understanding of what it means to be a follower of Jesus Christ and to know him not only as my Savior, but my comfort, sustainer, hope, and strength. That’s what drove me, together with my friend Kristen Wetherell, to write Hope When it Hurts - Biblical reflections to help you grasp God's purpose in your suffering (Cloth over Board)—I wanted to encourage other hurting women to fix their eyes on the Lord Jesus.
Sarah is a stay-at-home mom with 4 kids under the age of 9. When she isn't wearing her mommy hat, her passion is writing and speaking on what the Lord is teaching her through His word and through the suffering that He has allowed in her life. She writes at Setapart.net and has been writing for Unlocking the Bible’s blog (Pastor Colin Smith’s teaching ministry) on a monthly basis. She has also been featured on The Gospel Coalition, Revive Our Hearts, Crosswalk, and Challies.com.
Sarah and her husband have been given a unique call to raise a son with a neurological/behavioral disorder, which they now have good reason to believe has been the devastating effect of Lyme’s Disease. After Sarah was first diagnosed with Lyme Disease after battling long-term struggles with chronic health problems, it was also discovered that the increasing health problems growing in all 4 of her children was the result of Lyme Disease being passed to each one of them. This awful disease has ravaged their family, physically, emotionally, and financially, and has left them fighting, sometimes clinging, for hope, joy, and strength with every breath they take. This has been a painful, heartbreaking, and even scary journey at times. Many days, survival is the only reasonable goal. It’s been an exhausting, wearing, confusing journey for them, which at times has even felt hopeless. While it has been a lonely road to travel, Sarah is confident that everyone knows pain, in one form or another. Therefore, Sarah's writing and speaking is rooted in the hope that God will use her current pain and heartache to encourage and lift another’s spirit and point them to hope, joy, and contentment in Christ. Her greatest desire is that Christ will speak through her to those who need to be reminded that there is a greater hope than anything this world can offer.
"My hope and prayer is that many will join me on this narrow road to find the treasures of the gospel in the brokenness of our lives, 'these jars of clay, to show that the surpassing power belongs to God and not to us' (2 Cor.4:7)." ~ Sarah
Leviticus 5; Psalms 3-4; Proverbs 20; Colossians 3
By Don Carson 4/2/2018
Imagine a complex, well-ordered society such that in every area of life there are actions that make a person dirty and further prescribed actions that make that person clean. When you get up in the morning, you wear clothes of certain kinds of fabric, but not others. There are clean foods and unclean foods. If a spot of mold appears on the wall of your house, there are procedures for treating it. Men must adopt a certain course after a wet dream, women in connection with their periods. Some unclean things must not even be touched. In addition there is a complex religious and sacrificial system each person is supposed to observe, and failure to observe it at any point brings its own uncleanness. And all of this fits into a still broader set of constraints that include what we normally call moral categories: how we speak, truth-telling, how we treat others, questions of property, sexual integrity, neighborly actions, judicial impartiality, and so forth. Understand, too, that in this society the rules have been laid down by God himself. They are not the results of some elected Congress or Parliament, easily overturned by a fickle or frustrated public eager for something else. To ignore or defy these rules is to defy the living God. What kinds of lessons would be learned in such a society?
Welcome to the world of Leviticus. This, too, is part of the heritage from Mount Sinai, part of the Mosaic Covenant. Here the people of God are to learn that God prescribes what is right and wrong, and that he has a right to do so; that holiness embraces all of life; that there is a distinction between the conduct of the people of God and the conduct of the surrounding pagans, not merely a difference in abstract beliefs. Here the Lord himself prescribes what sacrifices are necessary, along with confession of sin (Lev. 5:5), when a person falls into uncleanness; and even that the system itself is no final answer, since one is constantly falling under another taboo and returning to offer sacrifices one has offered before. One begins to wonder if there will ever be one final sacrifice for sins.
But that is down the road. Here in Leviticus 5, Christian readers delight to observe that while God trains up his covenant people in elementary religious thought, he provides means such that even the poorest in society may regain cleanness. The person who cannot afford a sacrificial lamb may bring a pair of doves or a pair of pigeons; the person who cannot afford these may bring a small amount of flour. The lessons continue; always there is hope and a way of escape from the punishment that rebellion attracts.
Don Carson is research professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, and co-founder (with Tim Keller) of The Gospel Coalition. He has authored numerous books, and recently edited The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures (Eerdmans, 2016).Don Carson Books | Go to Books Page
Read The Psalms In "1" Year
Psalm 35Great Is the LORD
35 OF DAVID.
26 Let them be put to shame and disappointed altogether
who rejoice at my calamity!
Let them be clothed with shame and dishonor
who magnify themselves against me!
27 Let those who delight in my righteousness
shout for joy and be glad
and say evermore,
“Great is the LORD,
who delights in the welfare of his servant!”
28 Then my tongue shall tell of your righteousness
and of your praise all the day long.
By Gleason Archer Jr.
The Mosaic Authorship of Deuteronomy
Considerable discussion has already been devoted to the higher criticism of Deuteronomy in chapter 7 (pp. 105–108). There it was pointed out that the 621 B.C. date assigned by the Documentarians to the composition of this book was found unsatisfactory by many rationalistic critics since the time of Wellhausen. These twentieth-century scholars have come to the conclusion that De Wette’s theory of the origin of Deuteronomy in the reign of Josiah simply does not square with the internal evidence furnished by the text itself. The legislation it contains could never have arisen under the conditions which prevailed in the late seventh century B.C. The social, economic, and historical situation reflected by this book is quite different from that of Josiah’s time. While none of these scholars could on philosophic grounds entertain the possibility of actual Mosaic authorship, their critique of Wellhausen’s doctrinaire position has certainly left the date of Deuteronomic composition up in the air. Some have argued for a postexilic period, and others for a much earlier date. (Welch suggested the reign of Solomon, and Robertson the reign of David.) But they have at least agreed in condemning 621 B.C. as quite impossible for the composition of this last book in the Pentateuch.
In the last two decades, however, considerable study has been directed toward the structure of the suzerainty treaties drawn up between vassal kings and their imperial overlords in the days of the Hittite ascendancy, in the latter half of the second millennium. As Meredith Kline points out, the typical suzerainty treaty of the Hittite period consisted of the following parts: (1) preamble ( Deut. 1:1–5 ); (2) historical prologue ( Deut. 1:6–4:49 ); (3) the stipulations or main provisions of the treaty ( Deut. 5–26 ); (4) curses and blessings, or covenant-ratification ( Deut. 27–30 ); (5) arrangements for succession, or continuation of the covenant (with invocation of witnesses and disposition of the text, and the periodic reading of the treaty before the public—cf. Deut. 31–33 ). As contrasted with the second millennium treaties, those of the first millennium tend to vary in the order of the sections above specified, and they generally lacked section 2 (the historical prologue), or the blessings for covenant - faithfulness in section 4. G. E. Mendenhall remarks that it has been established that Deuteronomy conforms to the treaty structure of the second millennium, and hence this “covenant type is even more important as a starting point, because it cannot be proven to have survived the downfall of the great empires of the second millennium B.C. The older form of the covenant was no longer widely known after the United Monarchy.”
On Conservative presuppositions, it is possible to establish a very strong case for the Mosaic authorship of Deuteronomy. By the test of agreement with known historical conditions and by careful literary analysis, it is not difficult to show that only the pre-Davidic period can successfully be reconciled with the data of the Hebrew text. It can be shown by a fair handling of the evidence: (a) that Deuteronomy must have been written prior to the rise of the writing prophets in the eighth century B.C.; (b) that it also antedates the division of the Hebrew monarchy into Judah and Israel in 931 B.C.; (c) that it best agrees with a period near the conquest under Joshua. A very able reexamination of this evidence has been produced by the late G. T. Manley, demonstrating with most compelling logic that the data of the text itself preclude a post-Mosaic origin. A few of the most significant arguments he advances will be found briefly summarized in the ensuing paragraphs of this chapter.
But before examining this positive evidence, it would be well to rebut some of the standard “proofs” of post-Mosaic authorship based upon allegedly “telltale” phrases or turns of expression found in the text itself. The first of these is “as at this day” (kayyôʷm hazzeh), which occurs for example in 2:30. This phrase has been interpreted to mean that a great period of time has elapsed since the days of Moses, doubtless many centuries. But on what basis must this lapse of time be assumed? In virtually every instance where this phrase occurs, it fits in perfectly with the situation which would have existed in the closing days of Moses as he addressed the assembled host of Israel on the plains of Moab. Looking back over the vista of forty years (the period of the wilderness wanderings), it would have been altogether appropriate for him to add that the consequences of the episode or transaction mentioned still persisted until this closing year of his life. No real difficulty is presented by any of the six occurrences of this phrase: 2:30, the permanency of Sihon’s conquest; 4:20, the continuance of Israel as the covenant nation; 4:38, “as at this day” refers to their imminent conquest of Canaan as their inheritance; 8:18 is prospective, for the hope is that God’s favor in the future may continue as it is right now in Moses’ time; 10:15 refers to the permanency of God’s choice of Israel as His people; 29:28 has a prophetic perspective as it predicts a future judgment upon the disobedient nation.
A second “telltale” phrase is “beyond the Jordan,” when it refers to the region east of the Jordan valley (as for example in 1:1 ). It is urged that if this work has really been composed in Moab, “on the other side of the Jordan” (˓ēber hayyardēn) could only refer to Canaan proper. The fact that it demonstrably does refer to the eastern region of Gilead, Reuben, and Gad is said to prove that the author must have lived in Judah or Israel proper. But this is not the only possible inference by any means. As a matter of fact, ˓ēber hayyardēn occasionally refers to the region west of Jordan as well, in at least three other passages ( 3:20, 25; 11:30 ). This would indicate an author residing in the east, such as Moses in the plains of Moab. How are these variant uses of the phrase to be reconciled? By taking ˓ēber hayyardēn as a proper noun like Transjordania — a name attached to the land back in patriarchal times or earlier by the Palestinian population and adopted even by the inhabitants of the Transjordan region itself. Observe that during the British mandate over this territory (subsequent to World War I) the area was known as “Transjordania” even to those who lived in it, though “Transjordania” means “On the other side of Jordan.” In New Testament times the lower part of this region, at least, was known as “Peraea” (The Other - side Land) even to its own inhabitants. It is a reasonable supposition that the term ˓ēber hayyardēn had become a standard designation for the territory to the east of Jericho regardless of where the speaker happened to be. In those three instances, however, where the phrase refers to Canaanland west of the Jordan, we are to understand this as used in its literal and obvious sense rather than as a geographical name.
So far as this writer is aware, there are no expressions in the text of Deuteronomy which are not perfectly reconcilable with Mosaic authorship. Only chapter 34 is demonstrably post-Mosaic, since it contains a short account of Moses’ decease. But this does not endanger in the slightest the Mosaic authenticity of the other thirty-three chapters, for the closing chapter furnishes only that type of obituary which is often appended to the final work of great men of letters. An author’s final work is often published posthumously (provided he has been writing up to the time of his death). Since Joshua is recorded to have been a faithful and zealous custodian of the Torah, Moses’ literary achievement, it is quite unthinkable that he would have published it without appending such a notice of the decease of his great predecessors.
The Coming Prince
By Sir Robert Anderson 1841-1918
Chapter 9 The Paschal SupperBut yet another statement of St. John is quoted in this controversy. "That Sabbath day was an high day," he declares, and therefore, it is urged, it must have been the 15th of Nisan. The force of this "therefore" partly depends upon overlooking the fact that all the great sacrifices to which the 15th of Nisan largely owed its distinctive solemnity, were repeated daily throughout the festival. (Numbers 28:19-24)  On this account alone that Sabbath was "an high day." But besides, it was specially distinguished as the day on which the firstfruits of the harvest were offered in the temple; for in respect of this ordinance, as in most other points of difference between the Karaite Jews, who held to the Scriptures as their only guide, and the Rabbinical Jews, who followed the traditions of the elders, the latter were entirely in the wrong.
 Numbers 28:19-24. Compare Josephus, Ant., 3:10, 5.The law enjoined that the sheaf of the firstfruits should be waved before the Lord "on the morrow after the (paschal) Sabbath," (Leviticus 23:10-11) and from that day the seven weeks were reckoned which ended with the feast of Pentecost. But as the book of Deuteronomy expressly ordains that the weeks should be counted from the first day of the harvest, (Deuteronomy 16:9; and compare Leviticus 23:15-16) it is evident that the morrow after the Sabbath should not be itself a Sabbath, but a working day. The true day for the ordinance, therefore, was the day of the resurrection, "the first day of the week" following the Passover,  when, according to the intention of the law, the barley harvest should begin, and the first sheaf gathered should be carried to the Holy Place and solemnly waved before Jehovah. But with the Jews all this was lost in the empty rite of offering in the temple a measure of meal prepared from corn which, in violation of the law, had been garnered days before. This rite was invariably celebrated on the 16th of Nisan; and thus synchronizing with the solemnities both of the Paschal festival and of the Sabbath, that day could not fail to be indeed "an high day." 
 The present Jewish calendar is so adjusted that the 14th of Nisan shall never fall upon their Sabbath (see Encyc. Brit., 9th ed., title, Hebrew Calendar); and this, doubtless, was so intended, for the duties of the day were inconsistent with the due observance of the fourth commandment. Therefore, the morrow after the Sabbath" following would invariably be a working day, so that the law is perfectly consistent in providing that the sheaf should be waved on the first day of the harvest. It is only, therefore, in a cycle of years that the true day for offering the first-fruits falls on the third day from the Passover; but in the year of the crucifixion, the great antitype, the resurrection of Christ from the dead (1 Corinthians 15:20, 23), occurred upon the very day Divinely appointed for the rite. It follows that the true day of Pentecost must always be on the first day of the week (see Leviticus 23:15-16), and therefore in that same year the true Pentecost was, not the Sabbath day on which the Jews observed the feast, but the day which followed it, a fact which confirms the presumption that the designedly ambiguous word used in Acts 2:1, means "accomplished," in the sense of passed, and that it was when assembled on "the first day of the week" that the Church received the gift of the Holy Ghost.The argument in proof that the death of Christ was on the very day the paschal lamb was killed, has gained a fictitious interest and value from the seeming fitness of the synchronism this involves. But a closer investigation of the subject, combined with a broader view of the Mosaic types, will dissipate the force of this conclusion. The distinctive teaching of Calvinism is based on giving an exclusive place to the great sin-offering of Leviticus, in which substitution, in its most definite and narrowest sense, is essential. The Passover, on the other hand, has ever been the most popular of types. But though the other typical sacrifices are almost entirely ignored in the systems of our leading schools of theology, they have no little prominence in Scripture. The offerings which are placed first in the book of Leviticus have a large share in the theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews, — the new Testament "Leviticus," whereas the Passover is not even once referred to.  Now these Leviticus offerings  marked the feast-day, (Numbers 28:17-24) on which, according to the Gospels, "the Messiah was cut off."
 In truth it could not but have been the greatest Sabbath of the year, and it is idle to pretend that this is not sufficient to account for the mention made of it.
 The historical mention of the Passover in Hebrews 11:28 is of course no exception. It has no place in the doctrine of the Epistle.And other synchronisms are not wanting, still more striking and significant. During all His ministry on earth, albeit it was spent in humiliation and reproach, no hand was ever laid upon the Blessed One, save in importunate supplication or in devout and loving service. But when at times His enemies would fain have seized Him, a mysterious hour to come was spoken of, in which their hate should be unhindered. "This is your hour, and the power of darkness," He exclaimed, as Judas and the impious companions in his guilt drew round Him in the garden. (Luke 22:53) His hour, He called it, when He thought of His mission upon earth: their hour, when in the fulfillment of that mission He found Himself within their grasp.
 The burnt-offering, with its meat-offering, the peace-offering (the chagigah of the Talmud), and the sin-offering (Leviticus 1:4).
The agonies inflicted on Him by men have taken hold on the mind of Christendom; but beyond and above all these the mystery of the Passion is that He was forsaken and accursed of God.  In some sense, indeed, His sufferings from men were but a consequence of this; therefore His reply to Pilate, "Thou couldst have no power at all against Me, except it were given thee from above." If men seized and slew Him, it was because God had delivered Him up. When that destined hour had struck, the mighty Hand drew back which till then had shielded Him from outrage. His death was not the beginning, but the close of His sufferings; in truth, it was the hour of His triumph.
 No reverent mind will seek to analyze the meaning of such words, save in so far as they testify to the great fact that His sufferings and death were in expiation of our sins. But the believer will not tolerate a doubt as to the reality and depth of their meaning.The midnight agony in Gethsemane was thus; the great antitype of that midnight scene in Egypt: when the destroying angel flashed through the land. And as His death was the fulfillment of His people's; deliverance, so it took place upon the anniversary of "that selfsame day that the Lord did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egpyt by their armies." 
 Exodus 12:51. The Passover of the yearly celebration was but a memorial of the Passover in Egypt, which was the true type. It was killed, moreover, not at the hour of the Lord's death, but after that hour, between the ninth and the eleventh hour (Josephus, Wars, 6., 9, 3). "The elucidation of the doctrine of types, now entirely neglected, Not by our Pastor Brett! is an important problem for future theologians." This dictum of Hengstenberg's [Christology (Arnold's Ed.), § 765] may still be recorded as a deserved reproach upon theology, and much that has been written in this controversy might be quoted to prove its truth. The day of the resurrection was the anniversary of the crossing of the Red Sea, and again of the resting of the Ark on Ararat (Genesis 8:4). Nisan, which had been the seventh month, became the first month at the Exodus. (See Exodus 12:2; cf. Ordo. Saec., § 299.) On the 17th Nisan the renewed earth emerged from the waters of the flood; the redeemed people emerged from the waters of the sea; and the Lord Jesus rose from the dead.The Coming Prince
and also at this website. https://www.whatsaiththescripture.com/Voice/The.Coming.Prince.html#1-2
The Continual Burnt Offering
By H.A. Ironside - 1941
Psalm 76:8 From the heavens you uttered judgment;
the earth feared and was still,
9 when God arose to establish judgment,
to save all the humble of the earth. Selah
10 Surely the wrath of man shall praise you;
the remnant of wrath you will put on like a belt. ESV
Nothing perplexes the average believer in the justice of God more than the mystery of His long toleration of evil. But the man of faith can afford to wait in quietness and confidence (Isaiah 30:15), assured that He who is the righteous Judge of all men will never permit anything in this universe which will not prove at last to have been under His overruling hand and allowed for some good purpose. He will never have to apologize to any of His creatures for anything He ever does or which He permits to be done by Satan and those who are subject to the great adversary. All things are so ordered or overruled that He will be glorified and man will be blessed when the mystery of God is finished (Revelation 10:7) and the kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of our God and of His Christ (Revelation 11:15).
Isaiah 30:15 For thus said the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel,
“In returning and rest you shall be saved;
in quietness and in trust shall be your strength.”
But you were unwilling,
Revelation 11:15 Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign forever and ever.” ESV
Thy calmness bends serene above
My restlessness to still,
Around me flows Thy quickening life
To nerve my faltering will;
Thy presence fills my solitude,
Thy providence turns all to good.
Embosomed deep in Thy great love,
Held in Thy law, I stand;
Thy hand in all things I behold,
And all things in Thy hand;
Thou leadest me by unsought ways,
And turn’st my mourning into praise.
--- Samuel Longfellow
By James Orr 1907
NOTES TO CHAPTER IV | NOTE A—P. 91 | KÖNIG ON THE PERSONIFICATION THEORY
A FEW sentences from König’s discussion in his Neueste Prinzipien may not be out of place. “Parallels,” he says, “have again been sought in features of the Greek and of the Israelitish tradition (Seinecke, Cornill). Specially it has been recalled that Greek tradition attributed to Lycurgus two sons, Eunomus and Eucosmus, i.e., Law and Order.… But is this a sufficient basis for the conclusion that Ishmael and Isaac have in like manner been ascribed to Abraham? What a difference there is between the two pairs of names! The Greek pair, Eunomus and Eucosmus clearly represent personifications of ideas and of the results achieved by the great lawgiver.… The two names Ishmael and Isaac cannot be referred to any such design.… How, if in the two names Ishmael and Isaac such personifications lie before us, could all the particular traits be derived which are related with respect to Ishmael and Isaac? Were there also families in Sparta that claimed descent from Eunomus and Eucosmus?
“It is further argued that the Hellenes traced their origin to a tribal ancestor Hellen, who had two sons, Æolus and Dorus, and two grandsons, Achæus and Ion. I willingly concede that ‘it will occur to no one to see in the bearers of these names individual persons.’ … [But] to draw a parallel between these Greek names and the tribal fathers of Israel is a very hazardous operation. Have we any such histories of Hellen and the other four names as Genesis contains about the tribal fathers of Israel?” (pp. 42, 43).
One might remark also on the vague and fluctuating notices of the supposititious Eunomus and Eucosmus. Eunomus, e.g., is generally given as the father of Lycurgus.
NOTE B.—P. 100 | THE COVENANT WITH ISRAEL
KAUTZSCH has valuable remarks on this subject in his art in “The Religion of Israel” in Dict. of Bible (Extra Vol. p. 631). He says:
“In all the Pentateuchal sources, without exception, there is a uniform tradition to the effect that the central place amongst the incidents at Sinai is occupied by the concluding of a berith, commonly rendered Covenant.… Is all this now to be set down as fiction, a carrying back of much later theological conceptions and terminology, to a time for which no real tradition was any longer extant? This is a view to which the present writer cannot assent, having regard to either external or internal evidence.”
After summarising historical evidence, he proceeds: “Would all this be conceivable, if the proclamation of Jahweh as the God of Israel — the founding of the Jahweh religion — had taken place, so to speak, fortuitously, by the incidental passing of the name ‘Jahweh’ from mouth to mouth? Instead of any theory of this kind, we get the strongest impression that the further development of the religion of Israel during the period of the Judges and of the monarchy was the result of some occurrence of a fundamental kind of whose solemnity and binding force and character the whole nation retained a lively recollection. And this occurrence can have been nothing but the solemn proclaiming of the God who had manifested Himself in wondrous ways as the Helper and Deliverer of the people upon a definite occasion, and in the binding of the people to do His will, and to worship Him alone. Every one of the numerous allusions (whether in the Pentateuchal sources, the Prophets, or the Psalms ) to the mighty acts of Jahweh at the Exodus, how with a strong hand and a stretched out arm He brought the hosts of Israel out of the house of bondage, held back the waves of the Red Sea from Israel, but plunged the chariots and horsemen of Pharaoh into the waters, — every one of these allusions is at the same time an allusion to the days of Sinai, when for the first time these mighty acts of Jahweh were brought to the consciousness of the people in their true greatness, and extolled accordingly, and made the occasion of a solemn confession of Jahweh as the God of Israel, and the solemn binding of the people to do His will.” Cf. also Giesebrecht on Die Geschichtlichkeit des Sinaibundes.
NOTE C.—P. 104 | THEORIES OF THE EXODUS
THIS is how Von Bohlen disposes of the Exodus: “Here [in Egypt], during the four following centuries, which the popular traditions pass over with a prudent silence, the Hebrew family increased into so powerful a nation, that they entered the field as conquerors, and succeeded at length in establishing themselves among the native tribes of Palestine” ( Genesis, i. p. 16).
Kuenen accords to Manetho’s story of the expulsion of the lepers a credence he is unwilling to give to the narrative in Exodus, and thinks that the Israelites got help from the Hyksos. “The Book of Exodus does not mention the aid given by the Hyksos.… But a few slight touches furnish us with proof that the Israelites were supported by the nomadic tribes of Arabia, that is to say by the Hyksos.… We may surely take it for granted that the Israelites themselves were not passive spectators of the struggle [between Jahweh and the gods of Egypt]; that a conspiracy was formed among them; that others besides Moses and Aaron played a part in it. But with regard to all this the Book of Exodus is silent or confines itself to a few hints” (Rel. of Israel, 1 pp. 120–21, 124). Of the Red Sea deliverance: “What actually took place there we do not know. It is undoubtedly founded on fact. But it is very difficult to distinguish the actual circumstances of the occurrence from poetical embellishments. We will not risk the attempt.” (Ibid. p. 126).
Stade allows no value to the history in Exodus, and denies that Israel as a people came up out of Egypt. But something, he grants, must have given occasion to the story. “It is very possible that a part of those Hebrew tribes which afterwards coalesced into the people of Israel, passing into Egypt, lived there, and fell under bondage to the Egyptians. With the aid of the related nomadic tribes inhabiting the Sinaitic peninsula outside the kingdom of Egypt, they may have fought their way to freedom under Moses” (Geschichte, 1887, pp. 129–30). In the 1881 edition of his Geschichte, Stade is even more emphatic. “If any Hebrew clan,” he says, “once dwelt in Egypt, no one knows its name” (p. 129).
Colenso adopts Kuenen’s theories as “very probably the basis upon which the Scripture story of the Exodus has been founded.” “No doubt,” he says, “the Israelites on their march to Canaan experienced formidable difficulties, perhaps in crossing an arm of the Red Sea, and certainly in their passage through the wilderness — the reminiscences of which may have been handed down from age to age, and given rise to some of the miraculous stories in the narrative, while others are merely the result of the natural growth of legendary matter, or are due to the inventive genius of the writer or writers” (Pent. 6 p. 601).
Budde accepts the Exodus by the help of God as an incontestable truth, on the strength of Israel’s own self-consciousness. “All that can be considered doubtful is whether it was the whole people of Israel that fell under the Egyptian bondage, or Joseph alone (that is to say, the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, including Benjamin)” (Rel. of Israel, p. 10). No light is thrown on the how of the deliverance which, in the tradition, naturally “bears the stamp of miracle” (p. 13).
See summary of Wellhausen’s views in Bennett’s art. “Moses” in Dict. of Bible, iii. p. 445.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Translated by Henry Beveridge
3. If we now inquire in what way the conscience can be quieted as in
the view of God, we shall find that the only way is by having
righteousness bestowed upon us freely by the gift of God. Let us always
remember the words of Solomon, "Who can say I have made my heart clean,
I am free from my sin?" (Prov. 20:9). Undoubtedly there is not one man
who is not covered with infinite pollutions. Let the most perfect man
descend into his own conscience, and bring his actions to account, and
what will the result be? Will he feel calm and quiescent, as if all
matters were well arranged between himself and God; or will he not
rather be stung with dire torment, when he sees that the ground of
condemnation is within him if he be estimated by his works? Conscience,
when it beholds God, must either have sure peace with his justice, or
be beset by the terrors of hell. We gain nothing, therefore, by
discoursing of righteousness, unless we hold it to be a righteousness
stable enough to support our souls before the tribunal of God. When the
soul is able to appear intrepidly in the presence of God, and receive
his sentence without dismay, then only let us know that we have found a
righteousness that is not fictitious. It is not, therefore, without
cause, that the Apostle insists on this matter. I prefer giving it in
his words rather than my own: "If they which are of the law be heirs,
faith is made void, and the promise made of no effect," (Rom. 4:14). He
first infers that faith is made void if the promise of righteousness
has respect to the merit of our works, or depends on the observance of
the law. Never could any one rest securely in it, for never could he
feel fully assured that he had fully satisfied the law; and it is
certain that no man ever fully satisfied it by works. Not to go far for
proof of this, every one who will use his eyes aright may be his own
witness. Hence it appears how deep and dark the abyss is into which
hypocrisy plunges the minds of men, when they indulge so securely as,
without hesitations to oppose their flattery to the judgment of God, as
if they were relieving him from his office as judge. Very different is
the anxiety which fills the breasts of believers, who sincerely examine
themselves.  Every mind, therefore, would first begin to hesitate,
and at length to despair, while each determined for itself with how
great a load of debt it was still oppressed, and how far it was from
coming up to the enjoined condition. Thus, then, faith would be
oppressed and extinguished. To have faith is not to fluctuate, to vary,
to be carried up and down, to hesitate, remain in suspense, vacillate,
in fine, to despair; it is to possess sure certainty and complete
security of mind, to have whereon to rest and fix your foot.
4. Paul, moreover, adds, that the promise itself would be rendered null and void. For if its fulfillment depends on our merits when pray, will we be able to come the length of meriting the favor of God? Nay, the second clause is a consequence of the former, since the promise will not be fulfilled unless to those who put faith in it. Faith therefore failing, no power will remain in the promise. "Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace, to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed," (Rom. 4:16). It was abundantly confirmed when made to rest on the mercy of God alone, for mercy and truth are united by an indissoluble tie; that is, whatever God has mercifully promised he faithfully performs. Thus David, before he asks salvation according to the word of God, first places the source of it in his mercy. "Let, I pray thee, thy merciful kindness be for my comfort, according to thy word unto thy servant," (Ps. 119:76). And justly, for nothing but mere mercy induces God to promise. Here, then, we must place, and, as it were, firmly fix our whole hope, paying no respect to our works, and asking no assistance from them. And lest you should suppose that there is any thing novel in what I say, Augustine also enjoins us so to act. "Christ," says he, "will reign forever among his servants. This God has promised, God has spoken; if this is not enough, God has sworn. Therefore, as the promise stands firm, not in respect of our merits, but in respect of his mercy, no one ought to tremble in announcing that of which he cannot doubt," (August. in Ps. 88, Tract. 50). Thus Bernard also, "Who can be saved? ask the disciples of Christ. He replies, With men it is impossible, but not with God. This is our whole confidence, this our only consolation; this the whole ground of our hope: but being assured of the possibility, what are we to say as to his willingness? Who knows whether he is deserving of love or hatred? (Eccles. 9:1). Who has known the mind of the Lord that he may instruct him?' (1 Cor. 2:16). Here it is plain, faith must come to our aid: here we must have the assistance of truth, in order that the secret purpose of the Father respecting us may be revealed by the Spirit, and the Spirit testifying may persuade our hearts that we are the sons of God. But let him persuade by calling and justifying freely by faith: in these there is a kind of transition from eternal predestination to future glory," (Bert. in Dedica. Templi, Serm. 5). Let us thus briefly conclude: Scripture indicates that the promises of God are not surer unless they are apprehended with full assurance of conscience; it declares that wherever there is doubt or uncertainty, the promises are made void; on the other hand, that they can only waver and fluctuate if they depend on our works. Therefore, either our righteousness must perish, or without any consideration of our works, place must be given to faith alone, whose nature it is to prick up the ear, and shut the eye; that is, to be intent on the promise only, to give up all idea of any dignity or merit in man. Thus is fulfilled the celebrated prophecy of Zechariah: "I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day. In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall ye call every man his neighbor under the vine, and under the fig-tree," (Zech. 3:9, 10). Here the prophet intimates that the only way in which believers can enjoy true peace, is by obtaining the remission of their sins. For we must attend to this peculiarity in the prophets, that when they discourse of the kingdom of Christ, they set forth the external mercies of God as types of spiritual blessings. Hence Christ is called the Prince of Peace, and our peace, Isaiah 9:6; Eph. 2:14), because he calms all the agitations of conscience. If the method is asked, we must come to the sacrifice by which God was appeased, for no man will ever cease to tremble, until he hold that God is propitiated solely by that expiation in which Christ endured his anger. In short, peace must be sought nowhere but in the agonies of Christ our Redeemer.
5. But why employ a more obscure testimony? Paul uniformly declares that the conscience can have no peace or quiet joy until it is held for certain that we are justified by faith. And he at the same time declares whence this certainty is derived--viz. when "the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost," (Rom. 5:5); as if he had said that our Souls cannot have peace until we are fully assured that we are pleasing to God. Hence he elsewhere exclaims in the person of believers in general, "Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?" (Rom. 8:35). Until we have reached that haven, the slightest breeze will make us tremble, but so long as the Lord is our Shepherd, we shall walk without fear in the valley of the shadow of death (Ps. 23). Thus those who pretend that justification by faith consists in being regenerated and made just, by living spiritually, have never tasted the sweetness of grace in trusting that God will be propitious. Hence also, they know no more of praying aright than do the Turks or any other heathen people. For, as Paul declares, faith is not true, unless it suggest and dictate the delightful name of Father; nay, unless it open our mouths and enable us freely to cry, Abba, Father. This he expresses more clearly in another passage, "In whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him," (Eph. 3:12). This, certainly, is not obtained by the gift of regeneration, which, as it is always defective in the present state, contains within it many grounds of doubt. Wherefore, we must have recourse to this remedy; we must hold that the only hope which believers have of the heavenly inheritance is, that being in grafted into the body of Christ, they are justified freely. For, in regard to justification, faith is merely passives bringing nothing of our own to procure the favor of God, but receiving from Christ every thing that we want.
 The two previous sentences are ommited in the French.
Christian Classics Ethereal Library / Public Domain
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Devotionals, notes, poetry and more
6/1/2007 Kingdom Prayer
I have a good friend who is about twice my age. Over the past few years we have hunted together, fished together, and prayed together. He refers to himself as a recovering Pharisee who is learning how to quit praying for his own personal kingdom and how to pray for the kingdom of God. I have learned more about prayer from him than anyone. I have learned that faithfulness in the kingdom of God is more important than successfulness in the kingdom of man. I have learned that the power of God is not made perfect in our strength but in our weakness, and I have learned that kingdom prayer is not merely asking God for what we want in the temporal but what He wants in the eternal.
When the Lord taught His disciples to pray, he didn’t simply tell them what to do, He showed them what to do. Even as the Son of God, He demonstrated His humility and prayed to the Father that His kingdom would come and that His will would be done, and He knew exactly what He was asking for. For even when He prayed in the garden, He humbled Himself before the Father and fell down on His face and prayed, “My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as you will” (Matt. 26:39). On every occasion, our Lord prayed with an uninterrupted focus on the will of the Father. It would seem appropriate that if the Lord Jesus Christ prayed in such a manner, then so should we. When we come to God in prayer, we must empty ourselves of all arrogance and self-reliance; we must come to the end of ourselves so that our hearts can be lifted up to heaven, and we must focus our minds not on the goods and kindred of this earth but on the precious treasures that await us in our heavenly home.
In his booklet on prayer, entitled Of Of Prayer: A Perpetual Exercise of Faith. The Daily Benefits Derived from It., John Calvin provides several rules for prayer. He writes, “The third rule to be added is: that he who comes into the presence of God to pray must divest himself of all vainglorious thoughts, lay aside all idea of worth; in short, discard all self-confidence, humbly giving God the whole glory, lest by arrogating anything, however little, to himself, vain pride cause him to turn away his face.” In so doing, we shall conquer the kingdoms of men, tear down the strongholds of this world, and manifest what it means to live a humble existence coram Deo, before the face of God.
click here for article source
Dr. Burk Parsons (@BurkParsons) is editor of Tabletalk magazine, senior pastor of Saint Andrew’s Chapel in Sanford, Fla., a visiting lecturer at Reformed Theological Seminary, and a Ligonier Ministries teaching fellow. He is editor of John Calvin: A Heart for Devotion, Doctrine, and Doxology.
Ligonier coram Deo (definition)
by Bill Federer
The world of communication was revolutionized by a man who died this day, April 2, 1872. His name: Samuel Morse. He invented the telegraph and the Morse Code. An outstanding portrait artist in his own right, founding the National Academy of Design, Morse erected the first telegraph lines between Baltimore and the U.S. Supreme Court chamber in Washington, D.C. in 1844. The first message he sent over this new communication system was only four words, a verse from the Bible, Numbers 23:23: “What hath God Wrought! ”
Compiled by Richard S. Adams
A fault, opportunely rebuked, is like a cure timely taken.
--- Arthur Capel
The Gospel Of St. Mark, Illustrated From Ancient And Modern Authors...
As our Lord asked the sick man whether he wished to be healed, so, without our consent, He will not save us; and sinners are without excuse for not consenting to the will of the Lord and their own salvation.
--- Cardinal Bonaventura
The Gospel according to S. John : illustrated (chiefly in the doctrinal and moral sense) from ancient and modern authors ..
The cross is a one time, visual representation of God's grief over sin.
--- Dean H. Harvey
The Cross: God's Way of Salvation
Peace is the deliberate adjustment of my life to the will of God.
Enriching Christian Doctrine and Character
... from here, there and everywhere
University of Virginia Libray 1994
Ninth of tenth month. -- My heart hath often been deeply afflicted under a feeling that the standard of pure righteousness is not lifted up to the people by us, as a society, in that clearness which it might have been, had we been as faithful as we ought to be to the teachings of Christ. And as my mind hath been inward to the Lord, the purity of Christ's government hath been made clear to my understanding, and I have believed, in the opening of universal love, that where a people who are convinced of the truth of the inward teachings of Christ are active in putting laws in execution which are not consistent with pure wisdom, it hath a necessary tendency to bring dimness over their minds. My heart having been thus exercised for several years with a tender sympathy towards my fellow-members, I have within a few months past expressed my concern on this subject in several meetings for discipline.
John Woolman's Journal
Thomas A Kempis
Book Three - Internal Consolation
The Twenty-Fourth Chapter / Avoiding Curious Inquiry About The Lives Of Others
THE VOICE OF CHRIST
MY CHILD, do not be curious. Do not trouble yourself with idle cares. What matters this or that to you? Follow Me. What is it to you if a man is such and such, if another does or says this or that? You will not have to answer for others, but you will have to give an account of yourself. Why, then, do you meddle in their affairs?
Behold, I know all men. I see everything that is done under the sun, and I know how matters stand with each—what is in his mind and what in his heart and the end to which his intention is directed. Commit all things to Me, therefore, and keep yourself in good peace. Let him who is disturbed be as restless as he will. Whatever he has said or done will fall upon himself, for he cannot deceive Me.
Do not be anxious for the shadow of a great name, for the close friendship of many, or for the particular affection of men. These things cause distraction and cast great darkness about the heart. I would willingly speak My word and reveal My secrets to you, if you would watch diligently for My coming and open your heart to Me. Be prudent, then. Watch in prayer, and in all things humble yourself.
The Imitation Of Christ
Practical religion. The Christian life
"The fruit of the Spirit is love."
SEPARATED UNTO THE HOLY GHOST
"Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen . . . and Saul.
"As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.
"And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away. So they, being sent forth by the Holy Spirit, departed unto Seleucia" (Acts 13:1-4).
In the story of our text we shall find some precious thoughts to guide us as to what God would have of us, and what God would do for us. The great lesson of the verses quoted is this: The Holy Spirit is the director of the work of God upon the earth. And what we should do if we are to work rightly for God, and if God is to bless our work, is to see that we stand in a right relation to the Holy Spirit, that we give Him every day the place of honor that belongs to Him, and that in all our work and (what is more) in all our private inner life, the Holy Spirit shall always have the first place. Let me point out to you some of the precious thoughts our passage suggests.
First of all, we see that God has His own plans with regard to His kingdom.
His church at Antioch had been established. God had certain plans and intentions with regard to Asia, and with regard to Europe. He had conceived them; they were His, and He made them known to His servants.
Our great Commander organizes every campaign, and His generals and officers do not always know the great plans. They often receive sealed orders, and they have to wait on Him for what He gives them as orders. God in Heaven has wishes, and a will, in regard to any work that ought to be done, and to the way in which it has to be done. Blessed is the man who gets into God's secrets and works under God.
Some years ago, at Wellington, South Africa, where I live, we opened a Mission Institute--what is counted there a fine large building. At our opening services the principal said something that I have never forgotten. He remarked:
"Last year we gathered here to lay the foundation-stone, and what was there then to be seen? Nothing but rubbish, and stones, and bricks, and ruins of an old building that had been pulled down. There we laid the foundation-stone, and very few knew what the building was that was to rise. No one knew it perfectly in every detail except one man, the architect. In his mind it was all clear, and as the contractor and the mason and the carpenter came to their work they took their orders from him, and the humblest laborer had to be obedient to orders, and the structure rose, and this beautiful building has been completed. And just so," he added, "this building that we open today is but laying the foundation of a work of which only God knows what is to become."
But God has His workers and His plans clearly mapped out, and our position is to wait, that God should communicate to us as much of His will as each time is needful.
We have simply to be faithful in obedience, carrying out His orders. God has a plan for His Church upon earth. But alas! we too often make our plan, and we think that we know what ought to be done. We ask God first to bless our feeble efforts, instead of absolutely refusing to go unless God goes before us. God has planned for the work and the extension of His kingdom. The Holy Spirit has had that work given in charge to Him. "The work whereunto I have called them." May God, therefore, help us all to be afraid of touching "the ark of God" except as we are led by the Holy Spirit.
Absolute Surrender (The Colportage Library)
by D.H. Stern
but the lips of the wise protect them.
4 Where there are no oxen, the stalls are clean;
but much is produced by the strength of an ox.
Complete Jewish Bible : An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B'Rit Hadashah (New Testament)
‘Whisht, now!’ said my Teacher suddenly. We were standing close to some bushes and beyond them I saw one of the Solid People and a Ghost who had apparently just that moment met. The outlines of the Ghost looked vaguely familiar, but I soon realized that what I had seen on Earth was not the man himself but photographs of him in the papers. He had been a famous artist.
‘God’ said the Ghost, glancing round the landscape.
‘God what?’ asked the Spirit.
‘What do you mean, “God what”?’ asked the Ghost.
‘In our grammar God is a noun.’
‘Oh—I see. I only meant “By Gum” or something of the sort. I meant … well, all this. It’s … it’s … I should like to paint this.’
‘I shouldn’t bother about that just at present if I were you.’
‘Look here; isn’t one going to be allowed to go on painting?’
‘Looking comes first.’
‘But I’ve had my look. I’ve seen just what I want to do. God!—I wish I’d thought of bringing my things with me!’
The Spirit shook his head, scattering light from his hair as he did so. ‘That sort of thing’s no good here,’ he said.
‘What do you mean?’ said the Ghost.
‘When you painted on earth—at least in your earlier days—it was because you caught glimpses of Heaven in the earthly landscape. The success of your painting was that it enabled others to see the glimpses too. But here you are having the thing itself. It is from here that the messages came. There is no good telling us about this country, for we see it already. In fact we see it better than you do.’
‘Then there’s never going to be any point in painting here?’
‘I don’t say that. When you’ve grown into a Person (it’s all right, we all had to do it) there’ll be some things which you’ll see better than anyone else. One of the things you’ll want to do will be to tell us about them. But not yet. At present your business is to see. Come and see. He is endless. Come and feed.’
The Great Divorce
A Daily Devotional by Oswald Chambers
The glory that excels
The Lord … hath sent me that thou mightest receive thy sight. --- Acts 9:17.
When Paul received his sight he received spiritually an insight into the Person of Jesus Christ, and the whole of his subsequent life and preaching was nothing but Jesus Christ—“I determined not to know anything among you, save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified.” No attraction was ever allowed to hold the mind and soul of Paul save the face of Jesus Christ.
We have to learn to maintain an unimpaired state of character up to the last notch revealed in the vision of Jesus Christ.
The abiding characteristic of a spiritual man is the interpretation of the Lord Jesus Christ to himself, and the interpretation to others of the purposes of God. The one concentrated passion of the life is Jesus Christ. Whenever you meet this note in a man, you feel he is a man after God’s own heart.
Never allow anything to deflect you from insight into Jesus Christ. It is the test of whether you are spiritual or not. To be unspiritual means that other things have a growing fascination for you.
‘Since mine eyes have looked on Jesus,
I’ve lost sight of all beside,
So enchanted my spirit’s vision,
Gazing on the Crucified.’
My Utmost for His Highest
the Poetry of R.S. Thomas
Cold hands meeting,
the eyes aside -
so vows are contracted
in the tongue's absence.
over fifty long years
of held breath
the heart has become warm
Thomas, R. S.
It is policy in a suburban synagogue to celebrate Bar and Bat Mitzvahs only during regular Shabbat services. Each youngster chants a haftarah, reads from the Torah, and leads parts of the service. One year, a family comes before the ritual committee with a special request: They would like their son to be allowed to have his service on the Thursday morning of Thanksgiving. They explain that this date is more convenient for members of the family who are flying in for the holiday but who are unable to remain over the weekend when the Bar Mitzvah was originally scheduled. They point out that the Torah is also read on Monday and Thursday morning, and their child will still be able to lead the service and read from the Five Books of Moses.
The cantor notes that the Torah reading on Thursday is much shorter than the one on Shabbat, that the tunes for the weekday service differ significantly from those on Saturday (which the students have learned), and that there is no haftarah chanted on weekday mornings. The ritual committee, weighing the family’s request against the synagogue’s policies, votes not to make an exception. The Bar Mitzvah must take place on Saturday.
The family is very upset and goes to the next board meeting to complain. In addition to the arguments presented before the ritual committee, they add one more point: The synagogue is being unfair because it allowed other families in the past to celebrate a Bar Mitzvah on a day other than Saturday. They believe that precedent has been set for a weekday Bar Mitzvah and, therefore, the synagogue is morally bound to allow them to depart from the norm as well.
The rabbi answers that it is true that there was an exception made several years before, but the circumstances were unique. The child was severely developmentally handicapped. He had worked very hard to learn the blessings for an aliyah, which was all that he was able to do. But the young boy had a fear of appearing in the synagogue before the large crowd of Shabbat worshipers. The family felt that the only way their son would be able to celebrate becoming a Bar Mitzvah was at a low-keyed service, attended only by the immediate family and a few close friends. The ritual committee at that time, knowing the difficulties this family had in raising their son, and sensing how important this Bar Mitzvah would be to both the parents and the child, allowed an exception to the rules and set the service for a Monday morning. In his answer to the current request, the rabbi concluded that the former instance was so exceptional that it should not serve as a precedent for any other cases.
The family appearing before the ritual committee, like Rabbi Yehudah, believed very strongly in the power of precedent. If something was allowed before, it should be allowed again. Once an exception has been made, once a precedent has been established, you cannot deny others the same opportunity.
The Rabbis in our Gemara and the rabbi of the synagogue strongly disagree. They fear that following Rabbi Yehudah’s principle, almost all standards would fall away and practically anything could be allowed. The Rabbis believe that the law serves to provide parameters and limits of what is acceptable and what is not. They know that the law must be flexible to allow for special cases and unusual circumstances, but exceptions for extraordinary circumstances do not set precedents for ordinary occasions. Knowing when and where to allow for exceptions is one of the great burdens of leadership.
Better that they be uninformed transgressors than deliberate transgressors.
Text / Rava bar Rabbi Ḥanin said to Abaye: “It is taught: ‘One does not clap hands, slap sides or dance’ yet today people do this and we say nothing to them about it!” He said to him: “According to your reasoning, that which Rabbah said, that a man should not sit right near a stick-marker, lest an object roll away and he will carry it four cubits in a public place, but these women carry their jugs to the entrance of an alley and we say nothing to them about it!” Let Israel be: Better that they be uninformed transgressors than deliberate transgressors. Here, too, let Israel be: Better that they be uninformed transgressors than deliberate transgressors.
Context / Today, people clap their hands and dance on Shabbat, “and we say nothing to them about it!” There are three interesting historical notes about this law. First, while we think of clapping hands and dancing as part of festivities, hand-clapping was also used in the ancient world as part of mourning rituals. Second, Jewish law largely ignored this rule or legislated it out of existence. Authors of legal codes wrote that Jews by and large no longer fix musical instruments regularly, as they once did. This protection for the law is unnecessary. Third, and perhaps most important, is the fact that hand-clapping became a part of recognized, acceptable Jewish practice on Shabbat and holidays. In certain communities, there is a custom (based on Maimonides’ reading of this law) to clap hands with a variation, for example, the back of one hand into the palm of another rather than palms together. This would remind the person that it is Shabbat or a holiday. Thus, the people’s practice determines, to a large degree, what the law is and how (or even if!) it will be enforced.
This section deals with the laws of the festivals and Shabbat, specifically which objects may be carried on a holiday. Rava says: There is a specific prohibition against certain other activities on Shabbat and Festivals—hand-clapping and dancing, for example—yet people ignore this law and the Rabbis, in turn, ignore their transgression. There is disagreement among the commentators as to why these activities are prohibited, but it appears that they are preventive measures. This was done so that one will not engage in an activity (like fixing a musical instrument) that is fully prohibited on Shabbat and holidays.
The “stick-marker” that a person sits near delineates where one domain ends and another begins. Thus, carrying from the private domain, on this side of the marker, to the public domain, on the other side, is prohibited. Why is it, Abaye asks Rava, that we are concerned with a man sitting in one spot, troubled that he may transgress, but we do not care about women carrying their water jugs to the alley’s entrance on Shabbat? In other words, why are we scrupulous in one case, observing not only the law but also a preventive measure to avert accidental transgression, but in the other case, we see a potential problem and totally ignore it?
The answer is simple: “Let Israel be” means roughly “Leave the Jews alone.” If the Jews—in this case, the women with water jugs on Shabbat—are going to carry in any case, even if we tell them that it is prohibited, then it is preferable that they do it ignorant of the law than in intentional and flagrant violation of the law. The Rabbis were concerned with law, yet the interest here is less for this specific law than for the entire legal system. The only way the system works is if people follow rabbinic enactments. If people disobey the law and flaunt this fact, then the entire institution of law suffers. Soon, people will begin to ignore more laws, and the totality of Jewish law suffers. The Rabbis wanted Jews to keep the laws, the specific and proper observances of Jewish life. More important, though, they wanted Jews to observe the law, the entire system. When it became clear that a law would not be followed, the Rabbis might, in some cases, simply come to the conclusion that it is better not to tell the people that they were in violation. Better that they be uninformed transgressors than deliberate transgressors.
Swimming in the Sea of Talmud: Lessons for Everyday Living
Word Biblical Commentary
This section tells of the provision of cities for the Levites, and the guarantee of grazing rights to them in the surrounding pasture land. The section speaks not of Levitical rights of ownership, inheritance, or possession, but of the right to live in the cities and to pasture livestock there (contrast Lev 25:32–34). Measurements controlling the amount of land available for such purposes are given. There are forty-eight cities in all, and these are named in Joshua 21. They include the six cities of refuge and are to be given to the Levites on the basis of the strengths of the various tribes, the larger providing more such cities than the smaller.
That the priestly author should turn to this question at this point is entirely appropriate. He has just dealt with the arrangements for the division of the land among the various tribes in Num 34. Now is the moment to introduce his arrangements for the Levites. There is every likelihood that in including this material he is incorporating Levitical tradition. There was of course another Levitical tradition, preserved and adapted in Num 3–4, 18, which stressed that the Levites have no inheritance among the tribes. This tradition was strongly supported in Deuteronomy, and the author of Numbers was able to work it into his conception of the clerical hierarchy. What we have here is a subsequent provision, a later piece of Levitical tradition. Deuteronomy commended Levites to the care of the community, and the provision of cities to live in and land for their livestock is a natural solution. This latter Levitical tradition may have been a response to the problems posed by dispossessed Levites when the cult was centralized by Josiah. The possibility that Solomon was the first to initiate a policy of Levitical settlements cannot be precluded, but Deuteronomy itself remains silent on the subject, and it is only in the work of the exilic deuteronomists (Joshua 21) that the city list actually appears.
For the priestly author of Numbers the deuteronomic list in its original form in Josh 21 was the basis for his contribution here in Num 35:1–8. It gave him opportunity to fulfill two of his interests—the incorporation and adaptation of Levitical tradition, and the reinterpretation of deuteronomic material. The assigning of cities in Joshua’s lifetime is shown to be the product of a specific revelation to Moses. Moreover this traditional list of Levitical cities must be worked into his clerical hierarchy—with some cities granted to the sons of Aaron, and others to the three Levitical families which he has identified as the essential components of Levitical genealogy. The bulk of this reinterpretation comes in Josh 21 itself; here in Num 35:1–8 the author is content to suggest, in an idealized, way, the extent of the pasture land and above all to make it clear that the essential arrangements were fixed within the lifetime of Moses.
In the circumstances of his own time it was useful to the author to establish the principle of a significant Levitical presence in the provinces. This would have assisted their developing role as teachers in the post-exilic period (cf. 2 Chr 17:9). In general terms the section also helps to support a point made previously—that the clergy in general and the Levites in particular have a right to community support and to resources.
Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 5, Numbers (budd), 446pp
In the regulations made for the habitation of the Levites and their cattle we have some sort of precedent for religious endowments; but this precedent loses all value in argument when we consider that the old dispensation was essentially temporal, which ours is not; moreover, the Levites do not correspond to the clergy, but rather to the inner circle of the faithful, who are more emphatically the “salt of the earth.” Consider, therefore, as to the habitation of the Levites—1. That it was the will of God to disperse them as widely as possible throughout Israel—a thing which might have been looked upon as a punishment to them (Gen. 49:7), but was really for the common good. Even so it is his will that his own, who are more especially his own, should be scattered far and wide among the mass of imperfect or nominal Christians; not gathered together in one corner of Christendom, but everywhere found as the few among the many. And note that this is the very law of “salt,” which must be scattered and diffused to exercise its antiseptic functions. 2. That the Levites, although dispersed, yet lived in communities, and this no doubt that they might set forth the life of holiness according to the law. Even so there is, beside the law of dispersion, a counter-law of aggregation for “the spiritual,” which makes mightily for holiness. For Christianity is a life, and life is complex, and therefore can only be lived by many who agree. There should be centres of high religious influence everywhere, but those centres should be strong. 3. That the allotments of the Levites, though sufficient, were far from being extensive, on any understanding of the text. Even so, for those who would be an example to Christ’s flock, sufficiency is the rule, and nothing more (1 Tim. 6:8). God does not design poverty for his own (Luke 12:31), unless voluntarily embraced (ibid. ver. 33), but assuredly not wealth (ibid. 6:24). 4. That the object aimed at in the allotment of their cities was to give each tribe, and even each tribesman, a personal and local interest in the Levites. Even so it is the will of God that those who specially follow after him should be identified as strongly as possible with those around them, in order that these may love and reverence them. Every Christian land has its “saints,” by whom it is the more edified in that it feels them to be specially its own.
Consider also, mystically—1. That the Levitical cities numbered forty-eight, i. e. 12 × 4—the first being the symbol of the universal (apostolic—see Rev. 21:14) Church, the second of the whole earth (Matt. 8:11; Rev. 21:13), the whole signifying diffusion throughout the world. Even so the religious life is universal in all parts of the Church of God, even in those which seem to us most remote. 2. That the enclosures round the Levitical cities measured the same every way—lay foursquare as far as possible. Even so it is the ideal of the religious life that it be not one-sided, or unequal, but attain its full development in all directions; if not it must be starved to some extent.
The Pulpit Commentary-Book of Numbers (Old Testament)
New American Commentary
Six of the Levitical cities, three on each side of the Jordan River, were to be designated as cities of refuge whereby a person who had committed manslaughter or caused some other form of unintentional death to an individual would be afforded asylum and protection from potential avenging by a member of the slain person’s family. As both Israel and God’s inheritance, the Levites resided in cities established throughout the land among each of the twelve tribes as living symbols of faithfulness and holiness to God. The entire land belonged to God, and he had granted it as an inheritance to his people. But although promise and inheritance were gracious gifts to the nation, possession and prosperity were conditional based upon the faithfulness of the people to the covenant stipulations that defined the relationship between God and humanity. Transgression of the stipulations of the covenant could lead to Israel’s being dispossessed or driven out from their inheritance because their rebellion and rejection of God’s sovereignty could bring defilement to the land. Legislation in chap. 35 was designed to preserve the wholeness, holiness, and purity of the Promised Land and is thus an extension of the Holiness Code of Leviticus. (Note that the parallel passage in Deut 19:1–13 emphasizes the division of the Cisjordan territory into three parts with each having a refuge city. It also further defines the premeditated aspect that precipitated the murderous act, as well as several cases of accidental death.) These cities would be designated after the conquest of the land west of the Jordan and the apportioning of the land among the tribes (Josh 20:1–9).
Numbers: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture (The New American Commentary)
See how the lilies of the field grow. --- Matthew 6:28.
Open your Old Testament and tell me the aspect of nature you most often find there. ( Wings of the Morning, The (The Morrison Classic Sermon Series) ) It is not the world of sunshine and of flower. It is the world of vast and mighty things. We read of the waves that lift themselves to heaven and of the deep places of the unfathomed sea. The stormy wind is the chariot of God. Did thunder reverberate among the mountains? Did the earth reel and tremble in the earthquake? The Jew was awestruck, and worshipped and adored and said it was the voice of the Almighty.
Now turn to the teaching of the Man of Nazareth—“See how the lilies of the field grow.” The kingdom of heaven is like the crash of thunder? Not so; the kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed. It is no longer the things that tower aloft, it is no longer the things that shock or startle—it is not these that to the Man of Nazareth are richest in divine significance. It is the vineyard on the sunny hill; it is the lily waving in the field. It is things common and usual and silent that no one had had eyes to see before.
Now do you see the meaning of that change? It lies not in an altered thought of beauty but in an altered thought of the character of God. Tell me that God is the almighty King, and I look for his power in the war of elements. Tell me that his voice is that of Sinai, and it takes the grandest music of the hills to echo it. But tell me that God in heaven is my Father—that I am his child, and that he loves me dearly—and from that moment I look with other eyes on the sunshine and the streamlet and the flower. It is not in terrible or startling things that love delights to body itself forth. Never is love richer in revelation than when it consecrates all that is quiet and lowly. And it was because God was love to Jesus Christ that, when he went abroad into the world of nature, he saw God and his kingdom in the birds and in the thousand lilies of the field. The kind of God you really believe in determines mightily your thought of heaven. And the kind of God you really believe in determines mightily your thought of earth. And this is the gladness of the knowledge of God that has been given us by Christ our Savior, that it sets every common bush afire with him and finds him in every lily of the field.
--- George H. Morrison
Take Heart: Daily Devotions with the Church's Great Preachers
His Ideal Idelette April 2
Churchmen had been celibate for centuries, and John Calvin wondered if he, a first-generation Protestant, should break tradition. “I am not yet married,” he wrote. “Whether I shall ever marry I do not know. In any case, if I take a wife it will be that, freed from cares, I can consecrate myself to the Lord.”
He fell in love at age 30, but the marriage was called off. His friend William Farel suggested another woman, but Calvin was unimpressed. A third prospect looked promising, but Calvin was cautious. “I will look very foolish if my hope again falls through.”
It did. “I have not found a wife,” he lamented, “and frequently hesitate as to whether I ought any more to seek one.” Suddenly he noticed a widow in his congregation, Idelette de Bure, who had been converted through his preaching. He made frequent pastoral visits to her, and was smitten. They quickly married.
Idelette proved an ideal pastor’s wife. She visited the sick, poor, and distressed. She entertained visitors who came consulting her famous husband. She furnished her table with vegetables from her own garden. She bore patiently the loss of the couple’s three infants. She softened Calvin’s hard edge and provided him joy.
When Idelette fell ill, Calvin anguished. As the hour of death drew near, they talked about “the grace of Christ, the hope of everlasting life, our marriage, and her approaching departure.” Then he turned aside to pray. Idelette suddenly cried, “O glorious resurrection! O God of Abraham and of all our fathers, the believers of all the ages have trusted on Thee and none has hoped in vain. And now I fix my hope on Thee.” Having thus spoken, she died. Calvin wrote to Farel on April 2, 1549, “Intelligence of my wife’s death has perhaps reached you. I do what I can to keep myself from being overwhelmed with grief. My friends also leave nothing undone that may administer relief to my mental suffering.”
John and Idelette enjoyed nine years together. Never again did John Calvin seek a wife, for no one could replace his ideal Idelette.
There are three or four things I cannot understand: How eagles fly so high or snakes crawl on rocks, How ships sail the ocean or people fall in love. --- Proverbs 30:18,19.
On This Day 365 Amazing And Inspiring Stories About Saints, Martyrs And Heroes
Daily Readings / CHARLES H. SPURGEON
Morning - April 2
"He answered him to never a word." --- Matthew 27:14.
He had never been slow of speech when he could bless the sons of men, but he would not say a single word for himself. “Never man spake like this man,” and never man was silent like him. Was this singular silence the index of his perfect self- sacrifice? Did it show that he would not utter a word to stay the slaughter of his sacred person, which he had dedicated as an offering for us? Had he so entirely surrendered himself that he would not interfere in his own behalf, even in the minutest degree, but be bound and slain an unstruggling, uncomplaining victim? Was this silence a type of the defencelessness of sin? Nothing can be said in palliation or excuse of human guilt; and, therefore, he who bore its whole weight stood speechless before his judge. Is not patient silence the best reply to a gainsaying world? Calm endurance answers some questions infinitely more conclusively than the loftiest eloquence. The best apologists for Christianity in the early days were its martyrs. The anvil breaks a host of hammers by quietly bearing their blows. Did not the silent Lamb of God furnish us with a grand example of wisdom? Where every word was occasion for new blasphemy, it was the line of duty to afford no fuel for the flame of sin. The ambiguous and the false, the unworthy and mean, will ere long overthrow and confute themselves, and therefore the true can afford to be quiet, and finds silence to be its wisdom. Evidently our Lord, by his silence, furnished a remarkable fulfilment of prophecy. A long defence of himself would have been contrary to Isaiah’s prediction. “He is led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.” By his quiet he conclusively proved himself to be the true Lamb of God. As such we salute him this morning. Be with us, Jesus, and in the silence of our heart, let us hear the voice of thy love.
Evening - April 2
"He shall see his seed; he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand."Isaiah 53:10.
Plead for the speedy fulfilment of this promise, all ye who love the Lord. It is easy work to pray when we are grounded and bottomed, as to our desires, upon God’s own promise. How can he that gave the word refuse to keep it? Immutable veracity cannot demean itself by a lie, and eternal faithfulness cannot degrade itself by neglect. God must bless his Son, his covenant binds him to it. That which the Spirit prompts us to ask for Jesus, is that which God decrees to give him. Whenever you are praying for the kingdom of Christ, let your eyes behold the dawning of the blessed day which draweth near, when the Crucified shall receive his coronation in the place where men rejected him. Courage, you that prayerfully work and toil for Christ with success of the very smallest kind, it shall not be so always; better times are before you. Your eyes cannot see the blissful future: borrow the telescope of faith; wipe the misty breath of your doubts from the glass; look through it and behold the coming glory. Reader, let us ask, do you make this your constant prayer? Remember that the same Christ who tells us to say, “Give us this day our daily bread,” had first given us this petition, “Hallowed be thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven.” Let not your prayers be all concerning your own sins, your own wants, your own imperfections, your own trials, but let them climb the starry ladder, and get up to Christ himself, and then, as you draw nigh to the blood-sprinkled mercy-seat, offer this prayer continually, “Lord, extend the kingdom of thy dear Son.” Such a petition, fervently presented, will elevate the spirit of all your devotions. Mind that you prove the sincerity of your prayer by labouring to promote the Lord’s glory.
Morning and Evening
IN THE HOUR OF TRIAL
James Montgomery, 1771–1854
No temptation has seized you except what is common to man. And God is faithful; He will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear. But when you are tempted, He will also provide a way out so that you can stand up to it.
(1 Corinthians 10:13)
Crisis situations are often the important pivotal points in our lives. Our response to these traumatic times—the loss of a loved one, a change in employment, a mistreatment by a trusted friend—will be the foundation stones upon which our lives are built. Maintaining the glow of our first love for God despite all the stresses of life is a major concern. The third stanza of this hymn teaches so well what our attitude should be when difficulties come our way: A desire to know what God is saying through the experience and a willingness to cast our cares on Him.
This beloved hymn was written by one of England’s foremost hymn writers, James Montgomery. It was first published in 1853 with the title “Prayers on a Pilgrimage.” The text is based on the incident of Peter’s denial of his Lord in the courtyard of the high priest (Mark 14:54, 66–72).
“In the Hour of Trial” also teaches that believers, like Peter, are capable of rebelling and straying from the fellowship of their Lord. The Bible gives this warning: “If you think you are standing firm, be careful that you don’t fall!” (1 Corinthians 10:12). The antidote to sin’s allurements is the ability to keep our minds centered on Christ and His redemptive work for us. And like Peter, we can have our fellowship with God restored when we return to Him in brokenness and true humility. Peter’s remorse was the start of his spiritual greatness. Like Peter, we must let our pride and self-sufficiency become our Christ confidence if our lives are to count for the Lord.
In the hour of trial, Jesus, plead for me; lest by base denial I depart from Thee: When Thou seest me waver, with a look recall, nor for fear or favor suffer me to fall.
With forbidden pleasures would this vain world charm, or its sordid treasures spread to work me harm; bring to my remembrance sad Gethsemane, or, in darker semblance, cross-crown’d Calvary.
Should Thy mercy send me sorrow, toil, and woe, or should pain attend me on my path below, grant that I may never fail Thy hand to see; grant that I may ever cast my care on Thee.
For Today: Mark 14:54, 66–72; John 16:33; 17:15; Galatians 6:14.
Be sensitive to the possibility of denying your Lord even in some small word or deed. Share with another believer who has strayed from God the truth of a new beginning with Christ.
Amazing Grace: 366 Inspiring Hymn Stories for Daily Devotions
A.W. Pink | (1886-1952)
The Excellence of Our Inheritance
The excellence of this inheritance or everlasting portion of the redeemed is described by four expressions. First, it is incorruptible, and thus it is like its Author “the uncorruptible God” (Rom. 1:23). All corruption is a change from better to worse, but heaven is without change or end. Hence the word incorruptible has the force of enduring, imperishable. Nor will it corrupt its heirs, as many a worldly inheritance has done. Secondly, it is undefiled, and thus like its Purchaser, who passed through this depraved world as uncontaminated as a sunbeam is unsullied though it shines on a filthy object (Heb. 7:26). All defilement is by sin, but no germ of it can ever enter heaven. Hence undefiled has the force of beneficent, incapable of injuring its possessors. Thirdly, it is unfading, and thus it is like the One who conducts us thither, “the eternal Spirit” (Heb. 9:14), the Holy Spirit, “a pure river of water of life” (Rev. 22:1). The word undefiled tells of this River's perennial and perpetual freshness; its splendor will never be marred nor its beauty diminished. Fourthly, the phrase reserved in heaven speaks of the location and security of our inheritance (see Col. 1:5; 2 Tim. 4:18).
As we consider the four descriptive expressions in verse 4, several characteristics of our inheritance come into view. To begin with, our inheritance is indestructible. Its substance is wholly unlike that of earthly kingdoms, the grandeur of which wears away. The mightiest empires of earth eventually dissipate by reason of inherent corruption. Consider the purity of our portion. No serpent shall ever enter this Paradise to defile it. Behold its changeless beauty. Neither rust shall tarnish nor moth mar it, nor shall endless ages produce a wrinkle on the countenance of any of its inhabitants. Ponder its security. It is guarded by Christ for His redeemed; no thief shall ever break into it.
It seems to me that these four expressions are designed to cause us to make a series of contrasts with the glorious inheritance that awaits us. First, consider the inheritance of Adam. How soon was Eden corrupted! Secondly, think of the inheritance that “the most High divided to the nations” (Deut. 32:8) and how they have defiled it by greed and bloodshed. Thirdly, contemplate the inheritance of Israel. How sadly the land flowing with milk and honey wilted under the droughts and famines that the Lord sent in order to chasten the nation for their sins. Fourthly, let us reflect on the glorious habitation that was forfeited by the fallen angels, who “kept not their first estate” (Jude 6). These woeful, benighted spirits have no gracious High Priest to intercede for them, but are “reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.” Knowing our own remaining corruption, well might we shudder and ask with pious self-distrust (see Matthew 26:20-22), “What will keep us from such a doom?”
The Guarantee that We Will Receive Our Inheritance
We come, finally, to reflect upon the infallible guaranty of this doxology, which graciously answers the question of trembling saints just posited: “Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed at the last time.” Here is the cordial for the fainting Christian! Not only is the inestimably glorious and precious inheritance secure, “reserved in heaven” for us, but we also are secure, “kept by the power of God.” Here the Apostle Peter's doctrine perfectly coincides with that of the Lord Jesus and of the other apostles. Our Lord taught that those who are born or begotten of God believe on His Son (John 1:11-13; 3:3-5), and that those who believe have eternal life (John 3:15, 16). “He that believeth on the Son hath [presently and continually possesses] everlasting life” (John 3:36). He further taught that those who believe not do not believe because they are not His sheep (John 10:26). But then He goes on:
“My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand. I and my Father are one” (John 10:27-30).
The Apostle Paul also declares the fact that none of Christ's brethren shall ever perish.
“Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?. . . Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Rom. 8:35, 37-39).
Yet the question remains to be answered, “What is the principal means that the power of God exercises in preserving us, in order that we might enter upon and enjoy our inheritance?”
Faith Is the Means of Our Preservation
“Who are kept by the power of God through faith.” John Brown's insights are of great value on this point:
“They are ‘kept’—preserved safe—amid the many dangers to which they are exposed, ‘by the power of God.’ The expression, ‘power of God,’ may here refer to the Divine power both as exercised in reference to the enemies of the Christian, controlling their malignant purposes, and as exercised in the form of spiritual influence on the mind of the Christian himself, keeping him in the faith of the truth ‘in the love of God, and in the patient waiting for our Lord Jesus Christ’ [2 Thess. 3:5; cf. 2 Tim. 1:13, 14]. It is probably to the last that the apostle principally alludes, for he adds ‘by faith.’ It is through the persevering faith of the truth that the Christian is by Divine influence preserved from falling, and kept in possession both of that state and character which are absolutely necessary to the enjoyment of the heavenly inheritance.
“The perseverance thus secured to the true Christian is perseverance in faith and holiness; and nothing can be more grossly absurd than for a person living in unbelief and sin to suppose that he can be in the way of obtaining celestial blessedness.”
Though God Keeps Us, We Must Believe
By the almighty power of the Triune God, we are kept “unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.” But the same gracious Spirit who keeps us also inspired Jude to write, “Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life” (Jude 21). By Him also the Apostle Paul wrote, “Put on the whole armour of God, . . . Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked” (Eph. 6:11, 16). Therefore ought we frequently to cry to the Lord with the apostles, “Increase our faith” (Luke 17:5). If our cry is genuine, then we may be certain that Jesus, who is “the author and finisher of our faith” (Heb. 12:2) will hear and answer in a way best suited to our need, though perhaps by means of adversity.
The apostle's reference to the heavenly heritage of believers was a most appropriate one. He was writing to those who were, both naturally and spiritually, away from their homeland, aliens in a strange country. Many of them were converted Jews, and, as such, fiercely opposed and most cruelly treated. When a Jew became a Christian he forfeited much: he was excommunicated from the synagogue, becoming an outcast from among his own people. Nevertheless, there was rich compensation for him. He had been Divinely begotten to an inheritance infinitely superior, both in quality and duration, to the land of Palestine. Thus his gains far more than made up for his losses (see Matthew 19:23-29, especially v. 29). The Holy Spirit, then, from the outset of the Epistle, drew out the hearts of those suffering saints to God by setting before them His abundant mercy and the exceeding riches of His grace. The more they were occupied with the same the more their minds would be lifted above this scene and their hearts filled with praise to God. While few of us are experiencing any trials comparable to theirs, yet our lot is cast in a very dark day, and it behooves us to look away from the things that are seen and more and more to fix our attention upon the blissful future awaiting us. Since God has designed such for us, how we should glorify Him in heartfelt worship and by adhering to His promises by “the obedience of faith” (Rom. 16:26) to the end!
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