Korah’s RebellionNumbers 16:1 Now Korah the son of Izhar, son of Kohath, son of Levi, and Dathan and Abiram the sons of Eliab, and On the son of Peleth, sons of Reuben, took men. 2 And they rose up before Moses, with a number of the people of Israel, 250 chiefs of the congregation, chosen from the assembly, well-known men. 3 They assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron and said to them, “You have gone too far! For all in the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is among them. Why then do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?” 4 When Moses heard it, he fell on his face, 5 and he said to Korah and all his company, “In the morning the LORD will show who is his, and who is holy, and will bring him near to him. The one whom he chooses he will bring near to him. 6 Do this: take censers, Korah and all his company; 7 put fire in them and put incense on them before the LORD tomorrow, and the man whom the LORD chooses shall be the holy one. You have gone too far, sons of Levi!” 8 And Moses said to Korah, “Hear now, you sons of Levi: 9 is it too small a thing for you that the God of Israel has separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to himself, to do service in the tabernacle of the LORD and to stand before the congregation to minister to them, 10 and that he has brought you near him, and all your brothers the sons of Levi with you? And would you seek the priesthood also? 11 Therefore it is against the LORD that you and all your company have gathered together. What is Aaron that you grumble against him?”
12 And Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiram the sons of Eliab, and they said, “We will not come up. 13 Is it a small thing that you have brought us up out of a land flowing with milk and honey, to kill us in the wilderness, that you must also make yourself a prince over us? 14 Moreover, you have not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey, nor given us inheritance of fields and vineyards. Will you put out the eyes of these men? We will not come up.” 15 And Moses was very angry and said to the LORD, “Do not respect their offering. I have not taken one donkey from them, and I have not harmed one of them.”
16 And Moses said to Korah, “Be present, you and all your company, before the LORD, you and they, and Aaron, tomorrow. 17 And let every one of you take his censer and put incense on it, and every one of you bring before the LORD his censer, 250 censers; you also, and Aaron, each his censer.” 18 So every man took his censer and put fire in them and laid incense on them and stood at the entrance of the tent of meeting with Moses and Aaron. 19 Then Korah assembled all the congregation against them at the entrance of the tent of meeting. And the glory of the LORD appeared to all the congregation.
20 And the LORD spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying, 21 “Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.” 22 And they fell on their faces and said, “O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and will you be angry with all the congregation?” 23 And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 24 “Say to the congregation, Get away from the dwelling of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram.”
25 Then Moses rose and went to Dathan and Abiram, and the elders of Israel followed him. 26 And he spoke to the congregation, saying, “Depart, please, from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing of theirs, lest you be swept away with all their sins.” 27 So they got away from the dwelling of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. And Dathan and Abiram came out and stood at the door of their tents, together with their wives, their sons, and their little ones. 28 And Moses said, “Hereby you shall know that the LORD has sent me to do all these works, and that it has not been of my own accord. 29 If these men die as all men die, or if they are visited by the fate of all mankind, then the LORD has not sent me. 30 But if the LORD creates something new, and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into Sheol, then you shall know that these men have despised the LORD.”
31 And as soon as he had finished speaking all these words, the ground under them split apart. 32 And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, with their households and all the people who belonged to Korah and all their goods. 33 So they and all that belonged to them went down alive into Sheol, and the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly. 34 And all Israel who were around them fled at their cry, for they said, “Lest the earth swallow us up!” 35 And fire came out from the LORD and consumed the 250 men offering the incense.
36 Then the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 37 “Tell Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest to take up the censers out of the blaze. Then scatter the fire far and wide, for they have become holy. 38 As for the censers of these men who have sinned at the cost of their lives, let them be made into hammered plates as a covering for the altar, for they offered them before the LORD, and they became holy. Thus they shall be a sign to the people of Israel.” 39 So Eleazar the priest took the bronze censers, which those who were burned had offered, and they were hammered out as a covering for the altar, 40 to be a reminder to the people of Israel, so that no outsider, who is not of the descendants of Aaron, should draw near to burn incense before the LORD, lest he become like Korah and his company—as the LORD said to him through Moses.
41 But on the next day all the congregation of the people of Israel grumbled against Moses and against Aaron, saying, “You have killed the people of the LORD.” 42 And when the congregation had assembled against Moses and against Aaron, they turned toward the tent of meeting. And behold, the cloud covered it, and the glory of the LORD appeared. 43 And Moses and Aaron came to the front of the tent of meeting, 44 and the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, 45 “Get away from the midst of this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.” And they fell on their faces. 46 And Moses said to Aaron, “Take your censer, and put fire on it from off the altar and lay incense on it and carry it quickly to the congregation and make atonement for them, for wrath has gone out from the LORD; the plague has begun.” 47 So Aaron took it as Moses said and ran into the midst of the assembly. And behold, the plague had already begun among the people. And he put on the incense and made atonement for the people. 48 And he stood between the dead and the living, and the plague was stopped. 49 Now those who died in the plague were 14,700, besides those who died in the affair of Korah. 50 And Aaron returned to Moses at the entrance of the tent of meeting, when the plague was stopped.
The Steadfast Love of God EnduresPsalm 52 To The Choirmaster. A Maskil Of David, When Doeg, The Edomite, Came And Told Saul, “David Has Come To The House Of Ahimelech.”
1 Why do you boast of evil, O mighty man?
The steadfast love of God endures all the day.
2 Your tongue plots destruction,
like a sharp razor, you worker of deceit.
3 You love evil more than good,
and lying more than speaking what is right. Selah
4 You love all words that devour,
O deceitful tongue.
5 But God will break you down forever;
he will snatch and tear you from your tent;
he will uproot you from the land of the living. Selah
6 The righteous shall see and fear,
and shall laugh at him, saying,
7 “See the man who would not make
God his refuge,
but trusted in the abundance of his riches
and sought refuge in his own destruction!”
8 But I am like a green olive tree
in the house of God.
I trust in the steadfast love of God
forever and ever.
9 I will thank you forever,
because you have done it.
I will wait for your name, for it is good,
in the presence of the godly.
There Is None Who Does GoodPsalm 53 To The Choirmaster. According To Mahalath. A Maskil Of David.
1 The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.”
They are corrupt, doing abominable iniquity;
there is none who does good.
2 God looks down from heaven
on the children of man
to see if there are any who understand,
who seek after God.
3 They have all fallen away;
together they have become corrupt;
there is none who does good,
not even one.
4 Have those who work evil no knowledge,
who eat up my people as they eat bread,
and do not call upon God?
5 There they are, in great terror,
where there is no terror!
For God scatters the bones of him who encamps against you;
you put them to shame, for God has rejected them.
6 Oh, that salvation for Israel would come out of Zion!
When God restores the fortunes of his people,
let Jacob rejoice, let Israel be glad.
The Lord Upholds My LifePsalm 54 To The Choirmaster: With Stringed Instruments. A Maskil Of David, When The Ziphites Went And Told Saul, “Is Not David Hiding Among Us?”
1 O God, save me by your name,
and vindicate me by your might.
2 O God, hear my prayer;
give ear to the words of my mouth.
3 For strangers have risen against me;
ruthless men seek my life;
they do not set God before themselves. Selah
4 Behold, God is my helper;
the Lord is the upholder of my life.
5 He will return the evil to my enemies;
in your faithfulness put an end to them.
6 With a freewill offering I will sacrifice to you;
I will give thanks to your name, O LORD, for it is good.
7 For he has delivered me from every trouble,
and my eye has looked in triumph on my enemies.
Isaiah’s Vision of the LordIsaiah 6:1 In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and the train of his robe filled the temple. 2 Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. 3 And one called to another and said:
“Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts;
the whole earth is full of his glory!”
6 Then one of the seraphim flew to me, having in his hand a burning coal that he had taken with tongs from the altar. 7 And he touched my mouth and said: “Behold, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away, and your sin atoned for.”
Isaiah’s Commission from the Lord8 And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?” Then I said, “Here I am! Send me.” 9 And he said, “Go, and say to this people:
“ ‘Keep on hearing, but do not understand;
keep on seeing, but do not perceive.’
10 Make the heart of this people dull,
and their ears heavy,
and blind their eyes;
lest they see with their eyes,
and hear with their ears,
and understand with their hearts,
and turn and be healed.”
11 Then I said, “How long, O Lord?”
And he said:
“Until cities lie waste
and houses without people,
and the land is a desolate waste,
12 and the LORD removes people far away,
and the forsaken places are many in the midst of the land.
13 And though a tenth remain in it,
it will be burned again,
like a terebinth or an oak,
whose stump remains
when it is felled.”
The holy seed is its stump.
Sacrifices Pleasing to God
Hebrews 13Hebrews 13:1 Let brotherly love continue. 2 Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. 3 Remember those who are in prison, as though in prison with them, and those who are mistreated, since you also are in the body. 4 Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the marriage bed be undefiled, for God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterous. 5 Keep your life free from love of money, and be content with what you have, for he has said, “I will never leave you nor forsake you.” 6 So we can confidently say,
“The Lord is my helper;
I will not fear;
what can man do to me?”
17 Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they are keeping watch over your souls, as those who will have to give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with groaning, for that would be of no advantage to you.
18 Pray for us, for we are sure that we have a clear conscience, desiring to act honorably in all things. 19 I urge you the more earnestly to do this in order that I may be restored to you the sooner.
Benediction20 Now may the God of peace who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant, 21 equip you with everything good that you may do his will, working in us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever. Amen.
Final Greetings22 I appeal to you, brothers, bear with my word of exhortation, for I have written to you briefly. 23 You should know that our brother Timothy has been released, with whom I shall see you if he comes soon. 24 Greet all your leaders and all the saints. Those who come from Italy send you greetings. 25 Grace be with all of you.
The Reformation Study Bible
What I'm Reading
Building Up The Body
By Ken Jones 3/1/2007
Make no mistake about it, ours is a culture of specialization and niche marketing. From vegetarian or vegan restaurants to the most obscure hobby, entrepreneurs have found a way to tap into every conceivable niche market. And just as the church has borrowed other trends and techniques from the marketing world, niche marketing has been no exception. It should come as no surprise that para-church ministries and organizations have a target audience that they aim for, but we are seeing an increasing number of Christian churches that are shaping their ministries to reach a particular niche market. Sometimes this trend is the result of a subtle shift in the church’s ministry as they minister to a particular segment of the congregation. For instance, a church with a growing number of college age members may develop programs geared to meet the needs of that group. Concern for this group can evolve from a Sunday School class, to a small group fellowship, to a series of sermons tailored for that group, music that would appeal to that group, and on and on until the church has the character and reputation of being “a church for college students.” You can substitute “college student” with any other group or special interest such as family, young marrieds, business people, ad infinitum, but the end result is the same, a special interest-groups church, with a certain target audience.
But while some churches evolve to this point, others are planned and planted with the intention of catering to a specific group. Whether the specialty church is the result of efforts to meet the needs of a particular group within a given congregation, or of a church plant with a target audience in mind, the result is the same — an unnecessarily unbalanced and unhealthy church. This may appear to be an overstatement, but consider a family where one child is catered to and another is neglected. This is to the detriment of both. The one that is catered to develops unrealistic expectations and possibly a sense of entitlement. While the one that is neglected is made to feel inferior and at times even unloved, if not resentful of the favored child. But let’s consider a church scenario. A friend once told of an elderly widow who visited his church because her pastor was starting a prolonged series of sermons on sex. She understood the importance of addressing this subject from a biblical and pastoral perspective, but several weeks on the subject was more than she needed. Or, take a church that tailors its ministry to families with children, not only will such an emphasis not minister to those who are not married and have no children, but it could also prompt them to become discontent in their state. Contrary to what some may think or say (even many Christians), everyone that is single is not necessarily looking to be married. I have heard the complaints of unmarried Christians about the subtle pressures placed on them (sometimes in the context of singles ministries) to find a suitable mate, when finding a mate is the least of their concerns. In fact, Paul’s words in 1 Corinthians 7:8, 32–35 suggest that single Christians have fewer hindrances when it comes to serving the Lord. It is the responsibility of church leaders to provide an atmosphere that nurtures and edifies the whole covenant family.
Of course there is a place for special interest or small group ministries in the church. But I wonder if the contemporary church has made these secondary auxiliary ministries the driving force and defining character of the church. In other words, if a local church does not have a youth ministry, or a young adult fellowship, does this mean that church has nothing to offer youth and young adults? Have these special interest groups become the cornerstone of the church? On the contrary, the apostle Paul presents a different picture. In Ephesians 4:11–16 he says that Christ has given His church pastor-teachers to the whole body (family) for some very specific purposes:
First, they are for the equipping of the saints for the work of ministry. Edmund Clowney in his book, The Church (Contours of Christian Theology), says that the work of ministry consists in three things: serving God in worship, the world in missions and evangelism, and each other in nurture. Our gifts and participation in these things may differ, but our commitment to them should be equal.
Another purpose of the church in its ministry to the whole family is “building up the body of Christ until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God” (Eph. 4:12–13). Knowledge of the person and work of Christ is important to the whole body.
Thirdly, it is the duty of the church to build up the family so they are not easily deceived “by every wind of doctrine.” In other words, the family of God must be instructed in what we believe and why.
A fourth purpose of the church to the whole family is the stressing of our organic unity. Paul says “the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love” (v. 16).
If these things are our primary focus, then each member of the family will be equipped to serve, they will recognize their individual value to the body and appreciate the value of their brothers and sisters, as we uphold our common faith, and glorify our heavenly Father.
By R.C. Sproul Jr. 4/1/2007
Strange as it might seem, I was actually looking forward to seeing her, and wondering how she would react to seeing me. Two years ago my dear wife Denise was stricken with cancer. She received excellent treatment, and faced her challenge like a hero. It was my habit to accompany her to the chemotherapy room, where we met several young ladies that worked there. One seemed particularly compassionate, talkative, and fun. What will she think, I wondered, two years later, when Denise waltzes in here to accompany me for my chemotherapy treatments? Who would have thought a husband and wife, still comparatively young, would both fall victim to cancer within the space of two years?
The sweet nurse was surprised to see us, which didn’t surprise me. After we reintroduced ourselves she set about her work. She had some difficulty finding a vein with her I.V. needle, which didn’t surprise me either. After five or six jabs she succeeded. She then leaned close to me and whispered, “Do you ever get angry?” I smiled at her, knowing how frustrating and embarrassing it can be to try to get a needle in the right place. “Mercy no,” I told her, “I know you are doing your best. I’m sorry my veins are so lame.” She then explained that I had misunderstood her question. What she wondered was whether I ever got angry with God. “Why,” I asked her, “would I ever get angry with God?”
“Well,” she continued, “don’t you ever think that since you’re a pastor, since you’ve devoted your life to God, that He shouldn’t have allowed you to get cancer, let alone both you and Denise? Don’t you ever think that this is a pretty lousy way to repay you?” I gave thanks to God for the opportunity to help this sweet young woman. “I don’t get angry with God. He doesn’t owe me anything but His wrath. But that’s not why He gave me cancer. He gave it to me because He loves me, just like He gave it to Denise, because He loves her. This is neither punishment nor permission. This is a gift from Him.”
Paul tells us that it is right and appropriate, in times of hardship, that we should mourn. I didn’t tell the nurse that every day with cancer is like a day full of sunshine. (As I write this morning, it has been more than sixty hours since I’ve been able to eat anything.) Hardship, though it be for our good and His glory, is still hardship. And so we mourn. But, Paul tells us, we do not mourn like the world. They mourn without hope, while we mourn with hope.
There is an immediate and sound deduction we can reach here. Why would our mourning differ from the world around us? We know where we are going. We know what end is in store for us. Any sadness or hardship that we experience is, on any appropriate scale, brief and mild. Our suffering, after all, cannot be compared with the eternal weight of glory. The suffering of those outside the kingdom is but a prelude, a small taste of an eternity of agony. Our suffering, on the other hand, is but a speed bump on the way to Glory Road.
What we must not miss, however, is the reason for our different ends. Our grief is infused with hope not merely because we have a bright future. Instead our grief is infused with hope because of our past. We look forward, in the midst of our grief, in hope, because we look backward, in the midst of our grief, with joyful gratitude. My future is bright because the wrath that I am owed has already been spent. The difference is in the cross of Christ. Whatever sorrow God calls me to go through, He calls me to go through for the express purpose of remolding me into the image of His Son. Every cancerous cell growing in my body, every deadly chemical that the nurses pour into my body to fight the cancer, all of it exists to make me more like Jesus.
Stephen, we are told, while he was being martyred, saw heaven open up. He beheld the glory of Christ, as He stood, a witness for this witness. The joy was not merely that Stephen would be found innocent. The joy was not simply that Stephen would be with Jesus. The greatest joy was that Stephen knew that what he saw, that he would become. John, remembering that we ought not to mourn as those who are without hope, gives us this greatest hope, “Beloved, we are God’s children now, and what we will be has not yet appeared; but we know that when he appears, we will be like him, because we shall see him as he is” (1 John 3:2). He knows the plans He has for us, plans to give us hope and a future, a future so grand that eye hath not seen or ear heard, nor has it entered into the mind of man.
May we be blessed with the courage to believe His promises, even in the midst of hardship. May the world witness us, the witnesses of Christ, as we attest to His goodness, through mourning with hope. May they behold His glory, as we move from mourning to dancing.
R.C. Sproul Jr. Books
- 1 Biblical Economics: A Commonsense Guide to Our Daily Bread
- 2 When You Rise Up: A Covenantal Approach to Homeschooling
- 3 Almighty over All: Understanding the Sovereignty of God
- 4 Biblical Economics: A Complete Study Course
- 5 Feed My Sheep: A Passionate Plea for Preaching
- 6 The Potter's Freedom: A Defense of the Reformation and the Rebuttal of Norman Geisler's Chosen But Free
- 7 The View from a Hearse
- 8 What's In the Bible: A Tour of Scripture from the Dust of Creation to the Glory of Revelation
- 9 Economics for Everybody Study Guide
- 10 The Call to Wonder: Loving God Like a Child
- 11 Believing God: Twelve Biblical Promises Christians Struggle to Accept
- 12 Biblical Economics: A Commonsense Guide to Our Daily Bread
- 13 Made For His Pleasure: Ten Benchmarks of a Vital Faith
- 14 Almighty over All: Understanding the Sovereignty of God by R. C. Sproul Jr. (1999-03-01)
- 15 One Holy Passion: The Consuming Thirst to Know God
- 16 Biblical Economics: A Commonsense Guide To Our Daily Bread
- 17 Made For His Pleasure: Ten Benchmarks of a Vital Faith
- 18 Almighty over All: Understanding the Sovereignty of God by R. C. Sproul Jr. (1999-03-01)
- 19 One Holy Passion: The Consuming Thirst to Know God
- 20 Biblical Economics: A Commonsense Guide To Our Daily Bread
- 21 The Inerrant Word: Biblical, Historical, Theological, and Pastoral Perspectives
- 22 Holy, Holy, Holy: Proclaiming the Perfections of God
- 23 Tearing Down Strongholds: And Defending the Truth
- 24 Bound for Glory: A Practical Handbook For Raising a Victorious Family
- 25 After Darkness, Light: Distinctives of Reformed Theology: Essays in Honor of R. C. Sproul
- 26 Pulpit Aflame
- 27 Eternity in Our Hearts
- 28 Thinking. Loving. Doing.: A Call to Glorify God with Heart and Mind
- 29 Come, Thou Long-Expected Jesus: Experiencing the Peace and Promise of Christmas
- 30 Almighty over All: Understanding the Sovereignty of God
- 31 Believing God: Twelve Biblical Promises Christians Struggle to Accept by R.C. Sproul Jr. (2009-02-26)
- 32 Covered or Uncovered: How 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 Applies to Worship and Leadership in the Church
- 33 Proclaiming a Cross-Centered Theology
- 34 R.C. Sproul, Thabiti Anyabwile ,Alistair Begg , D.A. Carson,Sinclair B. Ferguson W. Robert Godfrey,Steven J. Lawson,R.C. Sproul Jr.,Derek W.H. Thomas'sHoly, Holy, Holy: Proclaiming the Perfections of God [Hardcover](2010)
- 35 Biblical Economics Study Guide
By Joel Beeke 4/1/2007
Every morning for several months, my wife and I walked past an injured Canada goose, whose feathers stuck out in several directions. For all those months, several geese dutifully stayed with the injured bird. Attitudes to Avoid Attitudes to Cultivate Putting Attitude into Action
Likewise, caring for the wounded is the church’s loving duty to her own. Paul teaches us that when one member of Christ’s body suffers, “all the members suffer” (1 Cor.12:26 KJV). Caring for the grieving promotes the unity of the body of Christ and fosters the communion of saints. Furthermore, grieving saints have a claim on our compassion for Christ’s sake (Matt. 25:40).
This is particularly true of pastors. We are called to be shepherd or pastor (Eph. 4:11), which means we are to “feed (literally, ‘be a shepherd to’) the church of God” (Acts 20:28 KJV). That involves avoiding certain attitudes and cultivating others, then putting those attitudes into action, remembering our great calling as Christ’s undershepherds.
I never forgot that lesson over the last eighteen years of ministry. Grieving, hurting people are what ministry is all about. We must not think of our churches and our parishioners in terms of numbers or cases; rather, we should think of our churches as hospitals where the wounded and grieving come to us, seeking our biblical guidance and loving care.
Second, don’t treat all sheep the same. As a good shepherd, remember that some sheep will need more attention than others. Third, don’t forsake shepherding for preaching. Don’t say, “I’m a preacher first and foremost, so I don’t need to spend much time with my flock.” Preaching and pastoring are two sides of the coin of ministry. Yes, it’s tough to do both well, but do them you must. God never promised you that the ministry would be easy.
Third, shepherd the grieving as you are shepherded by Christ. Be imitators of Christ for Christ’s sake (Eph. 5:1–2). If Christ purchased His flock with His own blood, should you not be willing to make some sacrifices to serve His hurting people?
Third, bathe your ministry in prayer. Pray earnestly for the grieving in their presence and in their absence. Pray for healing and for submission. Pray for divine intervention and for sanctification of the grief. Encourage the grieving to pray as well. Teach them that praying and ministering to others who grieve can help alleviate their own grief. Fourth, involve the flock. Alert your elders to such cases. Look for other members of the church that may be able to help.
Remember that the grieving and dying are facing many terrors, so offer comfort to the saved, and evangelize the unsaved. What joy we feel as pastors when we see the grieving saved and growing in the grace and knowledge of Christ under our shepherding! (2 Peter 3:18).
You are an agent of the Spirit, who has called you to your work, enables and equips you for it, and works through you by His Word to comfort the grieving (1 Peter 1:12). Such an honor far outweighs all the challenges and trials of church work.
Attitudes to AvoidFirst, don’t regard grieving people as an interruption. I was in the ministry for more than ten years when I received what proved to be a life-changing call. I was working on the conclusion of my doctoral dissertation when the phone rang. I sighed as I answered: “Am I that much of an interruption?” asked the voice on the other end. “Interruption?” I asked meekly. “Yes, didn’t you hear yourself sigh?” Suddenly I realized that my dissertation, not the grieving caller, was the interruption. The grieving caller was my life’s work, my calling, my real ministry. My dissertation was the interruption of this real ministry.
Attitudes to CultivateFirst, love your grieving people. People are hurting. If we do not shepherd them in their sorrows, we are hirelings, not shepherds, and should repent of our indifference. Say with Richard Baxter, “I am contented to consume my body, to sacrifice to God’s service, and to spend all that I have, and to be spent myself, for the souls of men.” Second, develop a positive attitude toward pastoral ministry. As a pastor, you need to cultivate an attitude of willing servitude to pastoring the needy. Say with Thomas Scott, “Had I a thousand lives, I would willingly spend them in the pastoral ministry: and had I as many sons, I should gladly devote them to it.”
Putting Attitude into ActionFirst, give yourself to the grieving. Offer hurting people your full attention. Put everything else out of your mind when you are with them. Second, focus on the Word. Let Scripture be the center of your visit. Read a brief, fitting portion with emphasis and feeling. Point people to Christ. Never let a visit pass without leaving behind the savor of the world’s best and most able Physician.
Joel Beeke Books:
- 1 Piety: The Heartbeat of Reformed Theology
- 2 A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life
- 3 How God Sent a Dog to Save a Family (Building on the Rock)
- 4 Reformation Heroes
- 5 Friends and Lovers: Cultivating Companionship and Intimacy in Marriage
- 6 The Reformation Heritage KJV Study Bible - Hardcover
- 7 Getting Back in the Race: The Cure for Backsliding
- 8 Parenting by God's Promises
- 9 Taking Hold of God: Reformed and Puritan Perspectives on Prayer
- 10 Living for God's Glory: An Introduction to Calvinism
- 11 Living By God's Promises (Deepen Your Christian Life)
- 12 God's Alphabet for Life: Devotions for Young Children
- 13 Revelation (Lectio Continua Expository Commentary on the New Testament)
- 14 Fighting Satan: Knowing His Weaknesses, Strategies, and Defeat
- 15 Family Worship (Family Guidance)
- 16 How God Used A Thunderstorm and Other Devotional Stories (Building on the Rock)
- 17 Reformed Confessions Harmonized
- 18 Why Christ Came: 31 Meditations on the Incarnation
- 19 Puritan Reformed Spirituality: A Practical Biblical Study from Reformed and Puritan Heritage
- 20 How God Used a Snowdrift (Building on the Rock)
- 21 How God Stopped The Pirates and Other Devotional Stories (Building on the Rock)
- 22 The Beauty and Glory of the Holy Spirit
- 23 Portraits of Faith: What Five Biblical Characters Teach Us About Our Life with God
- 24 Puritan Evangelism
- 25 Developing a Healthy Prayer Life
- 26 Holiness
- 27 Striving Against Satan
- 28 How God Used a Drought and an Umbrella (Building on the Rock)
- 29 Encouragement for Today's Pastors: Help from the Puritans
- 30 God’s Alphabet for Life : Devotions for Young Children
- 31 What Is Resurrection? (Basics of the Faith)
- 32 Living Zealously (Deepen Your Christian Life Series)
- 43 Family Worship (Family Guidance Series)
- 34 Bringing the Gospel to Covenant Children (Family Guidance)
- 35 Quest for Full Assurance: Legacy of Calvin & His Successors
- 36 Sola Scriptura: The Protestant Position on the Bible (Reformation Theology Series)
- 37 Prepared by Grace, for Grace: The Puritans on God’s Way of Leading Sinners to Christ
- 38 Bringing the Gospel to Covenant Children (Family Guidance Series)
- 39 The Family at Church: Listening to Sermons and Attending Prayer Meetings (Family Guidance)
- 40 Heirs with Christ: The Puritans on Adoption
- 41 A Faithful Church Member
- 42 Puritan Evangelism: A Biblical Approach (Guidance From Church History) by Joel R Beeke (1999-08-02)
- 43 Milk and Honey
- 44 Walking as He Walked
- 45 Developing Healthy Spiritual Growth: Knowledge, Practice and Experience
- 46 Forerunner of the Great Awakening: Sermons by Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (1691-1747) (Historical Series of the Reformed Church in America)
- 47 Sing a New Song: Recovering Psalm Singing for the Twenty-First Century
- 48 The Beauty and Glory of Christ
- 49 Feasting with Christ: Meditations on the Lord's Supper
- 50 The Epistles of John
- 51 Overcoming the World: Grace to Win the Daily Battle
- 52 How to Evaluate Sermons
- 53 Assurance of Faith (American University Studies)
- 54 Truth that frees: A workbook on Reformed doctrine for young adults
- 55 Jehovah Shepherding Sheep: Sermons on 23rd Psalm
- 56 Taking Hold of God: Reformed and Puritan Perspectives on Prayer
A Tale of Two Funerals
By Gene Edward Veith 4/1/2007
A young man I knew died in a tragic traffic accident. His death was utterably sad. At his funeral, his friends were all wearing T-shirts adorned with his picture. At the front of the church were heaped up flowers, footballs, and stuffed animals. On top of his coffin was a picture from his senior prom.
The service began with a recording of his favorite song, a heavy metal power ballad. The preacher gave a eulogy, praising how the teenager was such a good friend, such a good person, recounting some of the funny things he used to say, telling about the dreams he had for his life. Everybody in the church was crying.
Then his best friend got up to say a few words. He was sobbing. He finally croaked out his good-bye, as the congregation joined his sobs. His girlfriend recited a poem she wrote about how much she loved him. Then, the boy’s grief-stricken father had to get up in front of everybody to talk about his son.
As if all of this emotion were not wrenching enough, the funeral director next played a video, showing highlights of the boy’s life — his baby pictures, playing with his friends, enjoying Christmas with his family, waving at the camera.
There was not a dry eye in the house. People said what a beautiful funeral it was.
Another funeral I attended was of another young person who died a tragic death, one that was even more senseless and horrible. She had been raped and murdered by a serial killer. (I was one of the elders on duty. My job was to keep the news media away from the family.)
At this funeral, the congregation sang old hymns. They were in a minor key, but the lyrics centered on the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The grievers joined together in a responsive reading of the Word of God.
The pastor, garbed in black, read more texts from the Bible. Instead of a eulogy, the pastor recited the facts of the girl’s life, emphasizing her baptism, her catechesis, her confession of faith. He described how she joined the church, her confirmation, and her regular reception of the Lord’s Supper.
The pastor, preaching from the Bible, gave a sermon on our travails in this wicked world, on how the Son of God entered our sinful condition, how in His sacrifice and His promises, we have a sure and certain hope that this poor child has entered into everlasting joy. The justice of God will be manifest, and so will His mercy, and He will wipe away every tear.
We sang some more hymns. The mood was sad and somber, but the Word of God that permeated the whole service was like a lifeline. Or, rather, like a strong arm supporting us in our grief. Yes, we cried, but the funeral gave us strength.
Our culture does not know how to handle death. We insulate ourselves from it. The dying pass away out of sight.
We are terrified of death. And so we sentimentalize it.
The contemporary funeral deals with grief by indulging it, even feeding it. A successful funeral — with its heart-wrenching personal testimonials, its parade of mourners pouring out their anguish, the emotional manipulation of the congregation — works by creating an emotional catharsis. The upsurge of feeling can indeed feel cleansing. As at the ending of a tragedy, the emotions are purged. The bereaved feel drained. The aftermath, in Milton’s words, is “calm of mind, all passions spent.” The grievers really do feel better.
But how different is a traditional Christian funeral.
In a Christian service of the burial of the dead, the mourner’s grief is fully acknowledged and shared. But it is channeled into contemplation and prayer. The grievers are given not catharsis but consolation.
That consolation is not to be found in how good of a guy the dear departed was. Even Christian funerals sometimes miss this point.
My former pastor refused to deliver eulogies. It is not fitting, he would say, nor is it comforting, to dwell at a funeral on the dead person’s good works. When we die, we dare not stand before God claiming how good we are. So that must not be the emphasis at a funeral.
The dead person’s only hope is the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. That is the only hope of the grievers at the funeral, who, having been forced to confront the reality of death, tend to be uniquely receptive to spiritual truth.
My pastor would deflect attention from the person who died to the Person who died and rose again. He would preach Jesus — the cross, the atonement, the imputation of His righteousness, the resurrection — as the victor over death, hell, and the grave.
He would not preach this into a vacuum, but into the hearts of the grieving family and friends. He would connect Christ’s resurrection to the resurrection of their loved one and to theirs.
We did not leave this funeral drained, but comforted. He moved us from desolation to faith. We still hurt, but we were given hope, not in ourselves — at a funeral we experience as at no other time our frailty and helplessness — but in Someone stronger at a time when we need strength.
Gene Edward Veith Books:
- 1 God at Work (Redesign): Your Christian Vocation in All of Life
- 2 Spirituality of the Cross Revised Edition
- 3 Loving God with All Your Mind: Thinking as a Christian in the Postmodern World
- 4 Family Vocation: God's Calling in Marriage, Parenting, and Childhood
- 5 Modern Fascism: Liquidating the Judeo-Christian Worldview (Concordia Scholarship Today)
- 6 Working for Our Neighbor: A Lutheran Primer on Vocation, Economics, and Ordinary Life
- 7 Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary Thought and Culture
- 8 State of the Arts: From Bezalel to Mapplethorpe
- 9 Reading Between the Lines (Redesign): A Christian Guide to Literature (Turning Point Christian Worldview Series)
- 10 Imagination Redeemed: Glorifying God with a Neglected Part of Your Mind
A Grief Observed
By R.C. Sproul 4/1/2007
What’s wrong with this picture? I’m speaking of my assignment for this month’s issue of Tabletalk. Over the years, my articles have been generally written out of a concern to communicate content of a biblical or theological nature that I approach from the perspective of a student. This time I’ve been given the sobering assignment of writing about a topic, not merely from a biblical or theological perspective, but from a personal, anecdotal perspective. The editors of Tabletalk have asked me to write about grief, reflecting on how I have experienced grief in my own life and then commenting on how to deal with grief biblically as Christians should.
Before I discuss personal grief, I want to comment on the nature of grief. When we speak of the reality of grief, we are talking about pain. The pain that we describe by the use of this word, however, is not the pain of a minor irritation. It is not the pain of a broken bone, a fractured leg, a pierced shoulder. It is a pain that penetrates the skin of a person and plunges to the deepest recesses of the person’s being. It is a pain that grips the soul with a vise-like pincer that brings with the pain an excruciating sense of mourning. We use the term grief to describe pain that assaults the deepest level of our being. We often use the metaphor of the broken heart, yet we know that hearts don’t break like a glass that falls on the floor or like bones that are shattered in an accident. The broken heart really describes a weeping soul, a soul that is cloaked in the darkest night.
When we speak of grief, we speak about an emotion of which the Scriptures are profoundly aware. We speak of an emotion that was most poignantly manifested in the life and the experience of our Lord Himself. Jesus was described as a man of sorrows, acquainted with grief. His acquaintanceship with grief was not merely a sympathetic or empathetic awareness of other people’s pain. Rather, His experience of grief was a pain that He felt within Himself. To be sure, His pain was the result of His perception, not of His own shortcomings, but of the great evils that plague this world. We think of Jesus coming to the holy city, the city that He visited as a boy, the city that incorporated all of the promises that God had made to His people Israel, the city that was Zion’s holy hill. He came to that city, the city of promise, at a time when its corruption had reached its highest point. The nadir of unbelief was encrusted around the city of Jerusalem. When Jesus observed this city, He cried out in a lament, saying, “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets…. How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not!” It’s the grief that Jesus experienced when He noticed those women weeping for Him as He was moved, pushed, and shoved towards the cross at Golgotha. He said to these bystanders, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children” (Luke 23:28). Our Lord’s grief was rooted and grounded in His compassion for a fallen world.
On the other hand, when we experience grief, our grief is usually wrapped up with some kind of personal loss. We remember C. S. Lewis’ profound insights to this human predicament in his book A Grief Observed.
In my own experience, when I think of grief, there are only a few personal recollections that force their way into my mind. The first and most painful was the grief associated with the death of my father when I was seventeen years old. This was the man who, humanly speaking, was the anchor of my soul, the rock of stability in our home and in my life. When he was reduced to frailty and became incapacitated by multiple strokes, and wasted away finally to death itself, I was driven to despair. The loss of this man, who was my greatest earthly hero, left a scar on my soul that remains even to this day. I also think personally of my sense of loss when my dear friend Jim Boice was taken home to glory in 2000. It was not simply the loss of a friend, but a loss of a comrade in an ongoing battle that left me with such sorrow. The pangs of that sorrow were multiplied by my sense of loss, not only to me, but to the church of our time. When this champion was removed from our midst, I wanted to cry with David, “O how the mighty have fallen.” I wanted to say, “Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in Ashkelon.” Let no one take opportunity at the passing of this man to rejoice in any apparent defeat to the power of the cross.
Beyond those personal losses, the loss of friends, the loss of comrades, always bring to me a certain measure of grief. In my own heart, however, I know that nothing grieves me more than to see the Gospel compromised in the church. It’s not the wickedness of the pagan that breaks my heart. It’s the compromise of the Christian that grieves my soul. Finally, when I look at grief, as I experience it in my life and read of it in Scriptures, I know that with it always comes the clear and present danger of an emotion that can turn sour. Yet the emotion itself is perfectly legitimate. If we fail to deal with our grief, if our mourning goes beyond sorrow into bitterness, then we have allowed pain to abscess and become poison. We must examine the griefs we experience and take care that they never become the occasion for sin. They never did that to Jesus. We pray they won’t do it to us.
- 1 The Consequences of Ideas: Understanding the Concepts that Shaped Our World
- 2 The Holiness of God
- 3 Chosen by God
- 4 Essential Truths of the Christian Faith
- 5 What Is Reformed Theology?: Understanding the Basics
- 6 Knowing Scripture
- 7 The Donkey Who Carried a King
- 8 Defending Your Faith: An Introduction to Apologetics
- 9 Be Still, My Soul: Embracing God's Purpose and Provision in Suffering
- 10 Romans
- 11 Everyone's A Theologian
- 12 John (St. Andrew's Expositional Commentary)
- 13 Classic Teachings on the Nature of God: The Holiness of God; Chosen by God; Pleasing God—Three Books in One
- 14 The Priest with Dirty Clothes
- 15 Are We Together? A Protestant Analyzes Roman Catholicism
- 16 The Work of Christ: What the Events of Jesus' Life Mean for You
- 17 The Barber Who Wanted to Pray
- 18 God's Love: How the Infinite God Cares for His Children (Classic Theology)
- 19 The Prince's Poison Cup
- 20 Mark: St. Andrews Expositional Commentary
- 21 The Mystery of the Holy Spirit
- 22 Does Prayer Change Things? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 23 The Reformation Study Bible: English Standard Version Hardcover w/Maps
- 24 Now, That's a Good Question!
- 25 The Intimate Marriage: A Practical Guide to Building a Great Marriage (R. C. Sproul Library)
- 26 O Love That Will Not Let Me Go: Facing Death with Courageous Confidence in God
- 27 The Prayer of the Lord
- 28 After Darkness, Light: Distinctives of Reformed Theology: Essays in Honor of R. C. Sproul
- 29 The Last Days according to Jesus: When Did Jesus Say He Would Return?
- 30 The Lightlings
- 31 Who Is the Holy Spirit? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 32 Classical Apologetics
- 33 Surprised by Suffering: The Role of Pain and Death in The Christian Life
- 34 Faith Alone: The Evangelical Doctrine of Justification
- 35 What is the Trinity? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 36 The King Without a Shadow
- 37 Reason to Believe: A Response to Common Objections to Christianity
- 38 Unseen Realities: Heaven, Hell, Angels and Demons
- 39 Ultimate Issues (R. C. Sproul Library)
- 40 Can I Be Sure I'm Saved? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 41 How Should I Think about Money? (Crucial Questions)
- 42 What is Repentance? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 43 Come, Thou Long-Expected Jesus: Experiencing the Peace and Promise of Christmas
- 44 Does God Control Everything? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 45 Feed My Sheep: A Passionate Plea for Preaching
- 46 Can I Know God's Will? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 47 Getting the Gospel Right: The Tie That Binds Evangelicals Together
- 48 Who Is Jesus? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 49 Can I Trust the Bible? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 50 Holy Bible: New Geneva Study Bible, New King James Version
- 51 Sola Scriptura: The Protestant Position on the Bible
- 52 What is Baptism? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 53 A Walk With God: Luke
- 54 Cómo defender su fe (Una Introduccion a La Apologetica) (Spanish Edition)
- 55 Saved from What?
- 56 What Is Faith? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 57 Lifeviews
- 58 What Does It Mean to Be Born Again? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 59 Grace Unknown: The Heart of Reformed Theology
- 60 The Invisible Hand: Do All Things Really Work for Good? (R. C. Sproul Library)
- 61 Can I Have Joy in My Life? (Crucial Questions (Reformation Trust))
- 62 By R. C. Sproul - Knowing Scripture (First) (1/26/09)
Read The Psalms In "1" Year
Psalm 47God Is Kings Over All The Earth
47 To The Choirmaster. A Psalm Of The Sons Of Korah.
1 Clap your hands, all peoples!
Shout to God with loud songs of joy!
2 For the LORD, the Most High, is to be feared,
a great king over all the earth.
3 He subdued peoples under us,
and nations under our feet.
4 He chose our heritage for us,
the pride of Jacob whom he loves. Selah
5 God has gone up with a shout,
the LORD with the sound of a trumpet.
6 Sing praises to God, sing praises!
Sing praises to our King, sing praises!
7 For God is the King of all the earth;
sing praises with a psalm!
Numbers 16; Psalms 52-54; Isaiah 6; Hebrews 13
By Don Carson 5/8/2018
Two more wretched episodes of rebellion now blemish the history of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 16).
The first is the plot engineered by Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. They stir up trouble not among the riffraff, but among a sizable number of community leaders, about 250 of them. The heart of their criticism against Moses is twofold: (a) They think he has taken too much on himself. “The whole community is holy, every one of them, and the LORD is with them” (16:3). Moses has no right to set himself above “the LORD’s assembly” (16:3). (b) The track record of Moses’ ministry is so sullied by failure that he cannot be trusted. He brought them out of “a land flowing with milk and honey” (16:13), promising them much, but in reality leading them into the desert. So why on earth should he “lord it over” the people? (16:13)
Their reasoning would have a certain believability among those who focused on their hardships, who resented all authority, who had short memories of how they had been rescued from Egypt, who did not value all that God had carefully revealed, and who were swayed by the instant appeal of rhetoric but who did not value their own solemn covenantal vows. Their descendants are numerous today. In the name of the priesthood of all believers and of the truth that the whole Christian community is holy, other things that God has said about Christian leaders are rapidly skirted. Behind these pretensions of fairness lies, very often, naked lust for power, nurtured by resentments.
Of course, not every leader in the Christian church is to be treated with equal deference: some are self-promoted upstarts that the church is to get rid of (e.g., 2 Cor. 10-13). Nor are all who protest cursed with the judgment that fell on Korah and his friends: some, like Luther and Calvin, like Whitefield and Wesley, and like Paul and Amos before them, are genuine reformers. But in an anti-authoritarian age like ours, one should always check to see if the would-be reformers are shaped by passionate devotion to the words of God, or simply manipulate those words for their own selfish ends.
In the second rebellion, the “whole Israelite community” (16:41), fed by pathetic resentments, mutters against Moses and Aaron, accusing them of having killed the rebels the day before — as if they could have opened the ground to swallow them up. Thousands perish because the community as a whole still has not come to grips with God’s holiness, the exclusiveness of his claims, the inevitability of his wrath against rebels, his just refusal to be treated with contempt.
And why should our generation be spared?
Don Carson is research professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, and co-founder (with Tim Keller) of The Gospel Coalition. He has authored numerous books, and recently edited The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures (Eerdmans, 2016).
Don Carson Books:
- 1 An Introduction to the New Testament
- 2 The Gospel according to John Pillar NT Commentary
- 3 The Gospel according to John Pillar NT Commentary
- 4 NIV Zondervan Study Bible, Hardcover: Built on the Truth of Scripture and Centered on the Gospel Message
- 5 Praying with Paul: A Call to Spiritual Reformation
- 6 Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament
- 7 Exegetical Fallacies
- 8 For the Love of God: A Daily Companion for Discovering the Riches of God's Word, Volume 1
- 9 Be Still, My Soul: Embracing God's Purpose and Provision in Suffering
- 10 Matthew (The Expositor's Bible Commentary)
- 11 The God Who Is There: Finding Your Place in God's Story
- 12 The Difficult Doctrine of the Love of God
- 13 How Long, O Lord?: Reflections on Suffering and Evil
- 14 New Testament Commentary Survey
- 15 For the Love of God, Volume 2: A Daily Companion for Discovering the Riches of God's Word
- 16 9: Matthew and Mark (The Expositor's Bible Commentary)
- 17 Showing the Spirit: A Theological Exposition of 1 Corinthians, 12-14
- 18 The Cross and Christian Ministry: Leadership Lessons from 1 Corinthians
- 19 The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures
- 20 The Farewell Discourse and Final Prayer of Jesus: John 14-17
- 21 Introducing NT: A Short Guide to Its History and Message
- 22 Memoirs of an Ordinary Pastor: The Life and Reflections of Tom Carson
- 23 Preach the Word: Essays on Expository Preaching: In Honor of R. Kent Hughes
- 24 Jesus' Sermon on the Mount: An Exposition of Matthew 5-10
- 25 The Intolerance of Tolerance
- 26 From Sabbath to Lord's Day: A Biblical, Historical and Theological Investigation
- 27 Basics for Believers: An Exposition of Philippians
- 28 Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility: Biblical Perspective in Tension
- 29 The Expositor's Bible commentary : Matthew, Mark, Luke Vol. 8
- 30 Christ and Culture Revisited
- 31 NIV Zondervan Study Bible: Built on the Truth of Scripture and Centered on the Gospel Message
- 32 The King James Version Debate: A Plea for Realism
- 33 Don't Call It a Comeback: The Old Faith for a New Day
- 34 Gagging of God, The
- 35 The Gospel as Center: Renewing Our Faith and Reforming Our Ministry Practices
- 36 The God Who Is There Leader's Guide: Finding Your Place in God's Story
- 37 What Is the Gospel?
- 38 His Mission: Jesus in the Gospel of Luke
- 39 The Scriptures Testify about Me: Jesus and the Gospel in the OT
- 40 Love in Hard Places
- 41 Coming Home: Essays on the New Heaven and New Earth
- 42 God's Love Compels Us: Taking the Gospel to the World
- 43 Scandalous: The Cross and Resurrection of Jesus
- 44 Telling the Truth
- 45 God's Word, Our Story: Learning from the Book of Nehemiah
- 46 Becoming Conversant with the Emerging Church: Understanding a Movement and Its Implications
- 47 The Sermon on the Mount: An Evangelical Exposition of Matthew 5-7
- 48 Sunsets: Reflections for Life's Final Journey
- 49 God with Us: Themes from Matthew
- 50 A Model of Christian Maturity: An Exposition of 2 Corinthians 10-13
- 51 NIV Zondervan Study Bible, Built on the Truth of Scripture and Centered on the Gospel Message
- 52 The Pastor as Scholar and the Scholar as Pastor: Reflections on Life and Ministry
- 53 Teach Us to Pray: Prayer in the Bible and the World
- 54 Matthew, Vol.2 (Ch. 13-28), The Expositor's Bible Commentary
- 55 A Call to Spiritual Reformation: Priorities from Paul and His Prayers
- 56 The God Who Is There: Finding Your Place in God's Story
- 57 Entrusted with the Gospel: Pastoral Expositions of 2 Timothy
- 58 Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility: Biblical Perspectives in Tension
- 59 The Holy Spirit
- 60 The Plan
- 61 Collected Writings on Scripture
- 62 The Inclusive-Language Debate: A Plea for Realism
- 63 Matthew, Vol.1 (Ch. 1-12), The Expositor's Bible Commentary
- 64 Essential Evangelicalism: The Enduring Influence of Carl F. H. Henry
- 65 The Restoration of All Things
- 66 Reclaiming the Center: Confronting Evangelical Accommodation in Postmodern Times
- 67 Christ's Redemption
- 68 Exegetical Fallacies
- 69 Justification
- 70 Greek Accents: A Student's Manual
- 71 Gospel-Centered Ministry
- 72 The Cross and Christian Ministry: Leadership Lessons from 1 Corinthians
- 77 The Cross & Christian Ministry: An Exposition of Passages from 1 Corinthians
- 78 The Cross & Christian Ministry: An Exposition of Passages from 1 Corinthians
- 79 [(Christ and Culture Revisited)]
- 80 When Jesus Confronts the World: An Exposition of Matthew 8-10
- 81 The Church: God's New People
- 82 Letters Along the Way: A Novel of the Christian Life
- 83 Love in Hard Places
- 84 The God Who Is There: Finding Your Place In God'S Story
- 85 NT Commentary Survey
- 86 The Inclusive Language Debate
- 87 Exegetical Fallacies
- 88 The Farewell Discourse and Final Prayer of Jesus: An Exposition of John 14-17
- 89 NT Commentary Survey
- 90 How long, O Lord? (2nd edition): Reflections on Suffering and Evil
- 91 Holy Sonnets of the Twentieth Century
- 92 Basics for Believers: An Exposition of Philippians
- 93 By D. A. Carson - Gagging of God
- 94 Jesus the Son of God: A Christological Title Often Overlooked, Sometimes Misunderstood, and Currently Disputed
- 95 The Difficult Doctrine of the Love of God
- 96 A Call to Spiritual Reformation: Priorities from Paul and His Prayers
- 97 A Call to Spiritual Reformation
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Translated by Henry Beveridge
OF THE LAST RESURRECTION.
There are four principal heads in this chapter,--I. The utility, necessity, truth, and irrefragable evidence of the orthodox doctrine of a final resurrection--a doctrine unknown to philosophers, sec. 1-4. II. Refutation of the objections to this doctrine by Atheists, Sadducees, Chiliasts, and other fanatics, sec. 5-7. III. The nature of the final resurrection explained, sec. 8, 9. IV. Of the eternal felicity of the elect, and the everlasting misery of the reprobate.
1. For invincible perseverance in our calling, it is necessary to be animated with the blessed hope of our Savior's final advent.
2. The perfect happiness reserved for the elect at the final resurrection unknown to philosophers.
3. The truth and necessity of this doctrine of a final resurrection. To confirm our belief in it we have, 1. The example of Christ; and, 2. The omnipotence of God. There is an inseparable connection between us and our risen Savior. The bodies of the elect must be conformed to the body of their Head. It is now in heaven. Therefore, our bodies also must rise, and, reanimated by their souls, reign with Christ in heaven. The resurrection of Christ a pledge of ours.
4. As God is omnipotent, he can raise the dead. Resurrection explained by a natural process. The vision of dry bones.
5. Second part of the chapter, refuting objections to the doctrine of resurrection. 1. Atheists. 2. Sadducees. 3. Chiliasts. Their evasion. Various answers. 4. Universalists. Answer.
6. Objections continued. 5. Some speculators who imagine that death destroys the whole man. Refutation. The condition and abode of souls from death till the last day. What meant by the bosom of Abraham.
7. Refutation of some weak men and Manichees, pretending that new bodies are to be given. Refutation confirmed by various arguments and passages of Scripture.
8. Refutation of the fiction of new bodies continued.
9. Shall the wicked rise again? Answer in the affirmative. Why the wicked shall rise again. Why resurrection promised to the elect only.
10. The last part of the chapter, treating of eternal felicity; 1 Its excellence transcends our capacity. Rules to be observed. The glory of all the saints will not be equal.
11. Without rewarding questions which merely puzzle, an answer given to some which are not without use.
12. As the happiness of the elect, so the misery of the reprobate, will be without measure, and without end.
1. Although Christ, the Sun of righteousness, shining upon us through the gospel, has, as Paul declares, after conquering death, given us the light of life; and hence on believing we are said to have passed from "death unto life," being no longer strangers and pilgrims, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God, who has made us sit with his only begotten Son in heavenly places, so that nothing is wanting to our complete felicity; yet, lest we should feel it grievous to be exercised under a hard warfare, as if the victory obtained by Christ had produced no fruit, we must attend to what is elsewhere taught concerning the nature of hope. For since we hope for what we see not, and faith, as is said in another passage, is "the evidence of things not seen" so long as we are imprisoned in the body we are absent from the Lord. For which reason Paul says, "Ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory." Our present condition, therefore, requires us to "live soberly, righteously, and godly;" "looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ." Here there is need of no ordinary patience, lest, worn out with fatigue, we either turn backwards or abandon our post. Wherefore, all that has hitherto been said of our salvation calls upon us to raise our minds towards heaven, that, as Peter exhorts, though we now see not Christ, "yet believing," we may "rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory," receiving the end of our faith, even the salvation of our souls.  For this reason Paul says, that the faith and charity of the saints have respect to the faith and hope which is laid up for them in heaven (Col. 1:5). When we thus keep our eyes fixed upon Christ in heaven, and nothing on earth prevents us from directing them to the promised blessedness, there is a true fulfillment of the saying, "where your treasure is, there will your heart be also," (Mt. 6:21). Hence the reason why faith is so rare in the world; nothing being more difficult for our sluggishness than to surmount innumerable obstacles in striving for the prize of our high calling. To the immense load of miseries which almost overwhelm us, are added the jeers of profane men, who assail us for our simplicity, when spontaneously renouncing the allurements of the present life we seem, in seeking a happiness which lies hid from us, to catch at a fleeting shadow. In short, we are beset above and below, behind and before, with violent temptations, which our minds would be altogether unable to withstand, were they not set free from earthly objects and devoted to the heavenly life, though apparently remote from us. Wherefore, he alone has made solid progress in the Gospel who has acquired the habit of meditating continually on a blessed resurrection.
2. In ancient times philosophers discoursed, and even debated with each other, concerning the chief good: none, however, except Plato acknowledged that it consisted in union with God. He could not, however, form even an imperfect idea of its true nature; nor is this strange, as he had learned nothing of the sacred bond of that union. We even in this our earthly pilgrimage know wherein our perfect and only felicity consists,--a felicity which, while we long for it, daily inflames our hearts more and more, until we attain to full fruition. Therefore I said, that none participate in the benefits of Christ save those who raise their minds to the resurrection. This, accordingly, is the mark which Paul sets before believers, and at which he says they are to aim, forgetting every thing until they reach its (Phil. 3:8). The more strenuously, therefore, must we contend for it, lest if the world engross us we be severely punished for our sloth.  Accordingly, he in another passage distinguishes believers by this mark, that their conversation is in heaven, from whence they look for the Savior (Phil. 3:20). And that they may not faint in their course, he associates all the other creatures with them. As shapeless ruins are everywhere seen, he says, that all things in heaven and earth struggle for renovation. For since Adam by his fall destroyed the proper order of nature, the creatures groan under the servitude to which they have been subjected through his sin; not that they are at all endued with sense, but that they naturally long for the state of perfection from which they have fallen. Paul therefore describes them as groaning and travailing in pain (Rom. 8:19); so that we who have received the first-fruits of the Spirit may be ashamed to grovel in our corruption, instead of at least imitating the inanimate elements which are bearing the punishment of another's sin. And in order that he may stimulate us the more powerfully, he terms the final advent of Christ our redemption. It is true, indeed, that all the parts of our redemption are already accomplished; but as Christ was once offered for sins (Heb. 9:28), so he shall again appear without sin unto salvation. Whatever, then, be the afflictions by which we are pressed, let this redemption sustain us until its final accomplishment.
3. The very importance of the subject ought to increase our ardor. Paul justly contends, that if Christ rise not the whole gospel is delusive and vain (1 Cor. 15:13-17); for our condition would be more miserable than that of other mortals, because we are exposed to much hatred and insult, and incur danger every hour; nay, are like sheep destined for slaughter; and hence the authority of the gospel would fail, not in one part merely, but in its very essence, including both our adoption and the accomplishment of our salvation. Let us, therefore, give heed to a matter of all others the most serious, so that no length of time may produce weariness. I have deferred the brief consideration to be given of it to this place, that my readers may learn, when they have received Christ, the author of perfect salvation, to rise higher, and know that he is clothed with heavenly immortality and glory in order that the whole body may be rendered conformable to the Head. For thus the Holy Spirit is ever setting before us in his person an example of the resurrection. It is difficult to believe that after our bodies have been consumed with rottenness, they will rise again at their appointed time. And hence, while many of the philosophers maintained the immortality of the soul, few of them assented to the resurrection of the body. Although in this they were inexcusable, we are thereby reminded that the subject is too difficult for human apprehension to reach it. To enable faith to surmount the great difficulty, Scripture furnishes two auxiliary proofs, the one the likeness of Christ's resurrection, and the other the omnipotence of God. Therefore, whenever the subject of the resurrection is considered, let us think of the case of our Savior, who, having completed his mortal course in our nature which he had assumed, obtained immortality, and is now the pledge of our future resurrection. For in the miseries by which we are beset, we always bear "about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh," (2 Cor. 4:10). It is not lawful, it is not even possible, to separate him from us, without dividing him. Hence Paul's argument, "If there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen," (1 Cor. 15:13); for he assumes it as an acknowledged principle, that when Christ was subjected to death, and by rising gained a victory over death, it was not on his own account, but in the Head was begun what must necessarily be fulfilled in all the members, according to the degree and order of each. For it would not be proper to be made equal to him in all respects. It is said in the psalm, "Neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption," (Ps. 16:10). Although a portion of this confidence appertain to us according to the measure bestowed on us, yet the full effect appeared only in Christ, who, free from all corruption, resumed a spotless body. Then, that there may be no doubt as to our fellowship with Christ in a blessed resurrection, and that we may be contented with this pledge, Paul distinctly affirms that he sits in the heavens, and will come as a judge on the last day for the express purpose of changing our vile body, "that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body," (Phil. 3:21). For he elsewhere says that God did not raise up his Son from death to give an isolated specimen of his mighty power, but that the Spirit exerts the same efficacy in regard to them that believe; and accordingly he says, that the Spirit when he dwells in us is life, because the end for which he was given is to quicken our mortal body (Rom. 8:10, 11; Col. 3:4). I briefly glance at subjects which might be treated more copiously, and deserve to be adorned more splendidly, and yet in the little I have said I trust pious readers will find sufficient materials for building up their faith. Christ rose again that he might have us as partakers with him of future life. He was raised up by the Father, inasmuch as he was the Head of the Church, from which he cannot possibly be dissevered. He was raised up by the power of the Spirit, who also in us performs the office of quickening. In fine, he was raised up to be the resurrection and the life. But as we have said, that in this mirror we behold a living image of the resurrection, so it furnishes a sure evidence to support our minds, provided we faint not, nor grow weary at the long delay, because it is not ours to measure the periods of time at our own pleasure; but to rest patiently till God in his own time renew his kingdom. To this Paul refers when he says, "But every man in his own order: Christ the first-fruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming," (1 Cor. 15:23).
But lest any question should be raised as to the resurrection of Christ on which ours is founded, we see how often and in what various ways he has borne testimony to it. Scoffing men will deride the narrative which is given by the Evangelist as a childish fable. For what importance will they attach to a message which timid women bring, and the disciples almost dead with fear, afterwards confirm? Why does not Christ rather place the illustrious trophies of his victory in the midst of the temple and the forum? Why does he not come forth, and in the presence of Pilate strike terror? Why does he not show himself alive again to the priests and all Jerusalem? Profane men will scarcely admit that the witnesses whom he selects are well qualified. I answer, that though at the commencement their infirmity was contemptible, yet the whole was directed by the admirable providence of God, so that partly from love to Christ and religious zeal, partly from incredulity, those who were lately overcome with fear now hurry to the sepulchre, not only that they might be eye-witnesses of the fact, but that they might hear angels announce what they actually saw. How can we question the veracity of those who regarded what the women told them as a fable, until they saw the reality? It is not strange that the whole people and also the governor, after they were furnished with sufficient evidence for conviction, were not allowed to see Christ or the other signs (Mt. 27:66; 28:11). The sepulchre is sealed, sentinels keep watch, on the third day the body is not found. The soldiers are bribed to spread the report that his disciples had stolen the body. As if they had had the means of deforming a band of soldiers, or been supplied with weapons, or been trained so as to make such a daring attempt. But if the soldiers had not courage enough to repel them, why did they not follow and apprehend some of them by the aid of the populace? Pilate, therefore, in fact, put his signet to the resurrection of Christ, and the guards who were placed at the sepulchre by their silence or falsehood also became heralds of his resurrection. Meanwhile, the voice of angels was heard, "He is not here, but is risen," (Luke 24:6). The celestial splendor plainly shows that they were not men but angels. Afterwards, if any doubt still remained, Christ himself removed it. The disciples saw him frequently; they even touched his hands and his feet, and their unbelief is of no little avail in confirming our faith. He discoursed to them of the mysteries of the kingdom of God, and at length, while they beheld, ascended to heaven. This spectacle was exhibited not to eleven apostles only, but was seen by more than five hundred brethren at once (1 Cor. 15:6). Then by sending the Holy Spirit he gave a proof not only of life but also of supreme power, as he had foretold, "It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you," (John 16:7). Paul was not thrown down on the way by the power of a dead man, but felt that he whom he was opposing was possessed of sovereign authority. To Stephen he appeared for another purpose--viz. that he might overcome the fear of death by the certainty of life. To refuse assent to these numerous and authentic proofs is not diffidence, but depraved and therefore infatuated obstinacy.
4. We have said that in proving the resurrection our thoughts must be directed to the immense power of God. This Paul briefly teaches, when he says that the Lord Jesus Christ "shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working of that mighty power whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself," (Phil. 3:21). Wherefore, nothing can be more incongruous than to look here at what can be done naturally when the subject presented to us is an inestimable miracle, which by its magnitude absorbs our senses. Paul, however, by producing a proof from nature, confutes the senselessness of those who deny the resurrection. "Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened except it die," &c. (1 Cor. 15:36). He says that in seed there is a species of resurrection, because the crop is produced from corruption. Nor would the thing be so difficult of belief were we as attentive as we ought to be to the wonders which meet our eye in every quarter of the world. But let us remember that none is truly persuaded of the future resurrection save he who, carried away with admiration gives God the glory.
Elated with this conviction, Isaiah exclaims, "Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust," (Isaiah 26:19). In desperate circumstances he rises to God, the author of life, in whose hand are "the issues from death," (Psalm 68:20). Job also, when liker a dead body than a living being, trusting to the power of God, hesitates not as if in full vigor to rise to that day: "I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he will stand at the latter day upon the earth;" (that is, that he will there exert his power): "and though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God; whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another," (Job 19:25-27). For though some have recourse to a more subtle interpretation, by which they wrest these passages, as if they were not to be understood of the resurrection, they only confirm what they are desirous to overthrow; for holy men, in seeking consolation in their misfortunes, have recourse for alleviation merely to the similitude of a resurrection. This is better learned from a passage in Ezekiel. When the Jews scouted the promise of return, and objected that the probability of it was not greater than that of the dead coming forth from the tomb, there is presented to the prophet in vision a field covered with dry bones, which at the command of God recover sinews and flesh. Though under that figure he encourages the people to hope for return, yet the ground of hope is taken from the resurrection, as it is the special type of all the deliverances which believers experience in this world. Thus Christ declares that the voice of the Gospel gives life; but because the Jews did not receive it, he immediately adds, "Marvel not at this; for the hour is coming in which all that are in the grave shall hear his voice, and shall come forth," (John 5:28, 29). Wherefore, amid all our conflicts let us exult after the example of Paul, that he who has promised us future life "is able to keep that" which "is committed unto him," and thus glory that there is laid up for us "a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give," (2 Tim. 1:12; 4:8). Thus all the hardships which we may endure will be a demonstration of our future life, "seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; and to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire," (2 Thess. 1:6-8). But we must attend to what he shortly after adds--viz. that he "shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe," by receiving the Gospel.
5. Although the minds of men ought to be perpetually occupied with this pursuit, yet, as if they actually resolved to banish all remembrance of the resurrection, they have called death the end of all things, the extinction of man. For Solomon certainly expresses the commonly received opinion when he says "A living dog is better than a dead lion," (Eccl. 9:4). And again, "Who knoweth the spirit of man that goes upward, and the spirit of the beast that goes downward to the earth?"  In all ages a brutish stupor has prevailed, and, accordingly, it has made its way into the very Church; for the Sadducees had the hardihood openly to profess that there was no resurrection, nay, that the soul was mortal (Mark 12:18; Luke 20:27). But that this gross ignorance might be no excuse, unbelievers have always by natural instinct had an image of the resurrection before their eyes. For why the sacred and inviolable custom of burying, but that it might be the earnest of a new life? Nor can it be said that it had its origin in error, for the solemnity of sepulture always prevailed among the holy patriarchs, and God was pleased that the same custom should continue among the Gentiles, in order that the image of the resurrection thus presented might shake off their torpor. But although that ceremony was without profit, yet it is useful to us if we prudently consider its end; because it is no feeble refutation of infidelity that all men agreed in professing what none of them believed. But not only did Satan stupefy the senses of mankind, so that with their bodies they buried the remembrance of the resurrection; but he also managed by various fictions so to corrupt this branch of doctrine that it at length was lost. Not to mention that even in the days of Paul he began to assail it (1 Cor. 15), shortly after the Chiliasts  arose, who limited the reign of Christ to a thousand years. This fiction is too puerile to need or to deserve refutation. Nor do they receive any countenance from the Apocalypse, from which it is known that they extracted a gloss for their error (Rev. 20:4), since the thousand years there mentioned refer not to the eternal blessedness of the Church, but only to the various troubles which await the Church militant in this world. The whole Scripture proclaims that there will be no end either to the happiness of the elect, or the punishment of the reprobate. Moreover, in regard to all things which lie beyond our sight, and far transcend the reach of our intellect, belief must either be founded on the sure oracles of God, or altogether renounced. Those who assign only a thousand years to the children of God to enjoy the inheritance of future life, observe not how great an insult they offer to Christ and his kingdom.  If they are not to be clothed with immortality, then Christ himself, into whose glory they shall be transformed, has not been received into immortal glory; if their blessedness is to have an end, the kingdom of Christ, on whose solid structure it rests, is temporary. In short, they are either most ignorant of all divine things or they maliciously aim at subverting the whole grace of God and power of Christ, which cannot have their full effects unless sin is obliterated, death swallowed up, and eternal life fully renewed. How stupid and frivolous their fear that too much severity will be ascribed to God, if the reprobate are doomed to eternal punishment, even the blind may see. The Lord, forsooth, will be unjust if he exclude from his kingdom those who, by their ingratitude shall have rendered themselves unworthy of it. But their sins are temporary (see Bernard, Epist. 254). I admit it; but then the majesty of God, and also the justice which they have violated by their sins, are eternal. Justly, therefore, the memory of their iniquity does not perish. But in this way the punishment will exceed the measure of the fault. It is intolerable blasphemy to hold the majesty of God in so little estimation, as not to regard the contempt of it as of greater consequence than the destruction of a single soul. But let us have done with these triflers, that we may not seem (contrary to what we first observed) to think their dreams deserving of refutation.
Christian Classics Ethereal Library / Public Domain Institutes of the Christian Religion
Devotionals, notes, poetry and more
2/1/2006 The Heart Restored
As we consider the history of God’s people in the Old Testament, we do not observe a people who served the Lord faithfully. The people of Israel did not demonstrate their love for God with all their hearts. Even some of the great heroes of Israel manifested the depths of depravity in their lives.
Nevertheless, it is through our careful study of Israel’s past that we find great comfort. With spiritually discerning minds, we have been given the ability to understand the way in which God’s redemption of His people has been displayed throughout history. As such, we possess insight into the unfolding drama of redemption, from the beginning of life itself to the very end when death itself is conquered.
It is for no small reason that God’s record of His people is replete with stories of failure and renewal. For it is in the history of redemption that the patient God of Israel restores His people time after time, demonstrating His enduring love and faithfulness. Despite their lawlessness and rebellion, the people of God in the Old Testament were repeatedly brought to repentance by the kindness of God and were always renewed in their sweet communion with Him. This common theme of restoration is perhaps best illustrated in the life of David who was the son of Jesse, the shepherd of Bethlehem, the defender of the kingdom of God, the king of Israel, the adulterer, the deceiver, and the murderer. In the biblical portrait of David, we observe a man whose heart was broken by his sin and healed by his Lord.
Upon the occasion of David’s anointing, we recall the words of God to Samuel concerning David’s older brother Eliab: “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the LORD sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the LORD looks on the heart” (1 Sam. 16:7). The boldness and sheer magnificence of these words demand that we hearken to the words of Samuel when he proclaimed to Saul that “the LORD has sought out a man after his own heart…to be prince over his people” (1 Sam. 13:14). David was a man after God’s own heart, not because the heart of David was pure. Rather, he was a man after God’s own heart precisely because he understood that his heart was not pure, and for that reason he hid the Word of God in his heart so that he might not sin against the Lord and so that he might love the Lord with all his heart, coram Deo.
click here for article source
Dr. Burk Parsons (@BurkParsons) is editor of Tabletalk magazine, senior pastor of Saint Andrew’s Chapel in Sanford, Fla., a visiting lecturer at Reformed Theological Seminary, and a Ligonier Ministries teaching fellow. He is editor of John Calvin: A Heart for Devotion, Doctrine, and Doxology.
Ligonier coram Deo (definition)
by Bill Federer
The 33rd U.S. President was born this day, May 8, 1884. He was captain of a field artillery battery in France during World War I, judge in Jackson County, Missouri; a U.S. Senator; and Vice-President under Franklin D. Roosevelt. As President, he ended World War II by dropping the atomic bomb. His name: Harry S. Truman, who stated: "The fundamental basis of this nation's laws was given to Moses on the Mount. The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings… of Isaiah and St. Paul. I don't think we emphasize that enough these days."
Compiled by Richard S. Adams
The likeness we bear to Jesus is more essential than our notions of him.
--- Lucretia Mott, 1793-1880
Lucretia Mott, Her Complete Speeches and Sermons (Studies in Women & Religion)
I do not want to foresee the future.
I am concerned with taking care of the present.
God has given me no control over the moment following.
--- Mohandas Gandhi
The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas
In matters of conscience, the law of majority has no place.
--- Mohandas Gandhi
The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas
He has brought himself to this state; he has exposed his heart as a common road to every evil influence of the world, till it has become hard as a pavement.
--- Richard Trench
Notes on the Parables of Our Lord (Classic Reprint)
... from here, there and everywhere
Thomas A Kempis
Book Three - Internal Consolation
The Fifty-Ninth Chapter / All Hope And Trust Are To Be Fixed In God Alone
WHAT, Lord, is the trust which I have in this life, or what is my greatest comfort among all the things that appear under heaven? Is it not You, O Lord, my God, Whose mercies are without number? Where have I ever fared well but for You? Or how could things go badly when You were present? I had rather be poor for Your sake than rich without You. I prefer rather to wander on the earth with You than to possess heaven without You. Where You are there is heaven, and where You are not are death and hell. You are my desire and therefore I must cry after You and sigh and pray. In none can I fully trust to help me in my necessities, but in You alone, my God. You are my hope. You are my confidence. You are my consoler, most faithful in every need.
All seek their own interests. You, however, place my salvation and my profit first, and turn all things to my good. Even though exposing me to various temptations and hardships, You Who are accustomed to prove Your loved ones in a thousand ways, order all this for my good. You ought not to be loved or praised less in this trial than if You had filled me with heavenly consolations.
In You, therefore, O Lord God, I place all my hope and my refuge. On You I cast all my troubles and anguish, because whatever I have outside of You I find to be weak and unstable. It will not serve me to have many friends, nor will powerful helpers be able to assist me, nor prudent advisers to give useful answers, nor the books of learned men to console, nor any precious substance to win my freedom, nor any place, secret and beautiful though it be, to shelter me, if You Yourself do not assist, comfort, console, instruct, and guard me. For all things which seem to be for our peace and happiness are nothing when You are absent, and truly confer no happiness.
You, indeed, are the fountain of all good, the height of life, the depth of all that can be spoken. To trust in You above all things is the strongest comfort of Your servants.
My God, the Father of mercies, to You I look, in You I trust. Bless and sanctify my soul with heavenly benediction, so that it may become Your holy dwelling and the seat of Your eternal glory. And in this temple of Your dignity let nothing be found that might offend Your majesty. In Your great goodness, and in the multitude of Your mercies, look upon me and listen to the prayer of Your poor servant exiled from You in the region of the shadow of death. Protect and preserve the soul of Your poor servant among the many dangers of this corruptible life, and direct him by Your accompanying grace, through the ways of peace, to the land of everlasting light.
The Imitation Of Christ
Practical religion. The Christian life
"YE ARE THE BRANCHES"
An Address to Christian Workers
Everything depends on our being right ourselves in Christ. If I want good apples, I must have a good apple tree; and if I care for the health of the apple tree, the apple tree will give me good apples. And it is just so with our Christian life and work. If our life with Christ be right, all will come right. There may be the need of instruction and suggestion and help and training in the different departments of the work; all that has value. But in the long run, the greatest essential is to have the full life in Christ--in other words, to have Christ in us, working through us. I know how much there often is to disturb us, or to cause anxious questionings; but the Master has such a blessing for every one of us, and such perfect peace and rest, and such joy and strength, if we can only come into, and be kept in, the right attitude toward Him.
I will take my text from the parable of the Vine and the Branches, in John 15:5: "I am the vine, ye are the branches." Especially these words: "Ye are the branches."
What a simple thing it is to be a branch, the branch of a tree, or the branch of a vine! The branch grows out of the vine, or out of the tree, and there it lives and grows, and in due time, bears fruit. It has no responsibility except just to receive from the root and stem sap and nourishment. And if we only by the Holy Spirit knew our relationship to Jesus Christ, our work would be changed into the brightest and most heavenly thing upon earth. Instead of there ever being soul-weariness or exhaustion, our work would be like a new experience, linking us to Jesus as nothing else can. For, alas! is it not often true that our work comes between us and Jesus? What folly! The very work that He has to do in me, and I for Him, I take up in such a way that it separates me from Christ. Many a laborer in the vineyard has complained that he has too much work, and not time for close communion with Jesus, and that his usual work weakens his inclination for prayer, and that his too much intercourse with men darkens the spiritual life. Sad thought, that the bearing of fruit should separate the branch from the vine! That must be because we have looked upon our work as something other than the branch bearing fruit. May God deliver us from every false thought about the Christian life.
Now, just a few thoughts about this blessed branch-life.
Absolute Surrender (The Colportage Library)
by D.H. Stern
18 Pride goes before destruction,
and arrogance before failure.
19 Better to be humble among the poor
than share the spoil with the proud.
Complete Jewish Bible : An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B'Rit Hadashah (New Testament)
A Daily Devotional by Oswald Chambers
The patience of faith
Because thou hast kept the word of My patience.
--- Rev. 3:10.
Patience is more than endurance. A saint’s life is in the hands of God like a bow and arrow in the hands of an archer. God is aiming at something the saint cannot see, and He stretches and strains, and every now and again the saint says—‘I cannot stand any more.’ God does not heed, He goes on stretching till His purpose is in sight, then He lets fly. Trust yourself in God’s hands. For what have you need of patience just now? Maintain your relationship to Jesus Christ by the patience of faith. “Though He slay me, yet will I wait for Him.”
Faith is not a pathetic sentiment, but robust vigorous confidence built on the fact that God is holy love. You cannot see Him just now, you cannot understand what He is doing, but you know Him. Shipwreck occurs where there is not that mental poise which comes from being established on the eternal truth that God is holy love. Faith is the heroic effort of your life, you fling yourself in reckless confidence on God.
God has ventured all in Jesus Christ to save us, now He wants us to venture our all in abandoned confidence in Him. There are spots where that faith has not worked in us as yet, places untouched by the life of God. There were none of those spots in Jesus Christ’s life, and there are to be none in ours. “This is life eternal, that they might know Thee.” The real meaning of eternal life is a life that can face anything it has to face without wavering. If we take this view, life becomes one great romance, a glorious opportunity for seeing marvellous things all the time. God is disciplining us to get us into this central place of power.
My Utmost for His Highest: Quality Paperback Edition
the Poetry of RS Thomas
It will not always be like this,
The air is windless, a few last
Leaves adding their decoration
To the trees' shoulders, braiding the cuffs
Of the boughs with gold; a bird preening
In the lawns' mirror. Having looked up
From the day's chores, pause a minute,
Let the mind take its photograph
Of the bright scene, something to wear
Against the heart in the long cold.
Selected poems, 1946-1968
Bava Kamma 26a
A couple sits in a therapist's office; they are there for marriage counseling. The wife complains bitterly about her husband's lack of showing her affection. "I'm always telling him how much I love him. When we go out, I always reach for his hand, to hold it as we walk. At home, I'll come over and for no reason at all just give him a hug or a kiss on the top of his head. But I get nothing in return! The only time he'll tell me he loves me is when we're in bed, or maybe on my birthday, or before he goes on a trip. When we're out together, he won't hold my hand, or even let me put my arm around him. It's like I'm poison. Doesn't he know how that's bound to make me feel? I need more affection from him. I need him to let me know that he loves me. Sometimes lately, I begin to wonder if he even loves me at all any more."
The husband breaks in. "How can you say that? I show you all the time how I feel about you. Maybe not in words, but that doesn't mean the feelings aren't there. No matter what I say, you are always in my thoughts." The therapist interjects, "What is on your mind? How do you feel about her? Do you love your wife?"
"Of course I do! How can she question that?" the husband answers.
"I question it because I just don't know. You don't tell me. Sometimes I need to hear you say it. In words!"
Rava uses the principle "Words that are in the heart are not words" in a legalistic sense, but it is clear that the principle has validity in other spheres as well. It teaches us the importance of communication, of letting people know what we are thinking and feeling. Some people believe: "It's the thought that counts." Rava does not. To him it is not enough to leave thoughts in our hearts or minds. They must be expressed, they must be shared with others. If they are not, if they are left unsaid, then often we are left to explain, too late, "But what I really meant was …" How sad.
REST STOP / From there they set out and encamped at the wadi Zared. (Numbers 21:12)
Words of Torah are compared to water, as it says: "Ho, all who are thirsty, come for water." [Isaiah 55:1] … Just as water is not to be found in a golden or silver vessel, but rather in the lowliest of vessels, so too Torah is not to be found except in one who makes himself like an earthen vessel. (Song of Songs Rabbah 1,3)
A rabbi fell asleep and dreamed that he had entered Paradise. There, to his surprise, he found the sages discussing a knotty problem in the Talmud.
"Is this the reward of Paradise?" cried the rabbi. "Why, they did the very same thing on earth!"
At this, he heard a voice chiding him, "You foolish man! You think the sages are in Paradise. It's just the opposite! Paradise is in the sages."
(Nathan Ausubel. A Treasury of Jewish Folklore . New York: Crown Publishers, 1960, p. 55)
Introduction to Seder Nezikin
The fourth Order of the Mishnah is Nezikin, or "Damages." There are ten tractates that discuss civil and criminal law cases. The first three tractates were originally one long section; they were broken up into more manageable size and given the names "First Gate," "Middle Gate," "End Gate" (in Aramaic Bava Kamma, Bava Metzia, and Bava Batra). Two tractates of this Order have no Gemara. One of them is Pirkei Avot, "the Chapters (or Ethics) of the Fathers," a book of ethical maxims that is among the most well known and popular sections of all rabbinic literature.
A man is always forewarned.
Text / Mishnah (2:6): A man is always forewarned, whether inadvertently or deliberately, whether awake or asleep. If he blinded the eye of another, or broke his utensils, he must pay full damages.
Context / When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox shall be stoned and its flesh shall not be eaten, but the owner of the ox is not to be punished. If, however, that ox has been in the habit of goring, and its owner, though warned, has failed to guard it, and it kills a man or a woman — the ox shall be stoned and its owner, too, shall be put to death. (Exodus 21:28–9)
As has been previously noted, Jewish law has an extensive literature on damages, found in the section of Talmud called Nezikin, "Damages." The Midrash tells the story of how Masekhet Nezikin came to be divided: There was one student who was so overwhelmed by the prospect of having to study thirty chapters of Nezikin (for one tractate or subject was studied each year) that the tractate was divided into three, each containing ten chapters. The practical nature of Nezikin—injuries, damages, real estate, and inheritance—makes these three tractates popular among Talmud students and teachers.
The Mishnah, both here and in previous chapters, is defining categories of living things and objects as to their culpability in the case of damages. Some are "blameless" (in Hebrew, tam), that is, there are no damages assessed when they injure. Others are called "forewarned" (in Hebrew, muad). Caution must be taken and, where it was not, the responsible party can be assessed damages.
Thus, for example, if a person's ox gores another's animal, how much is the ox's owner responsible for those damages? It is well known that oxen gore, and the ox's owner must take necessary precautions to protect others from his animal's habits. If he does not, then he is liable for damages. As far as goring by an ox is concerned, the owner is "forewarned" (or, to be technical, the animal is in the category "forewarned").
Domesticated animals are different. If a cow bites, kicks, or pushes, the owner cannot be assessed damages. None of these is a normal habit or expected behavior of a cow. The owner can be expected to take precautions only against the animal's regular habits and common forms of damage. In such a case, the owner is not forewarned and is blameless, because it was unlikely that such damages would occur. The Mishnah does not expect the owner of the cow to go to extraordinary lengths to prevent every conceivable damage.
What about damages caused by people? The Mishnah text above from Bava Kamma tells us that, relating to damages, a person is always "forewarned." This means that, "whether inadvertently or deliberately, whether when he was awake or asleep," a person who caused harm to another would be required to pay damages. For example, while Reuven is sleeping, Shimon lies down next to him. In his sleep, Shimon pokes out Reuven's eye. Shimon is liable to Reuven damages for having caused harm, though inadvertently and while asleep, because "a man is always forewarned" concerning damages.
Swimming in the Sea of Talmud: Lessons for Everyday Living
The middle chapters of the Book of Judges report external disasters that came on Israel. Physical enemies, outside peoples, were sent by God to judge His people and bring them to repentance. These judgments were "extraordinary." That is, they were not direct natural consequences of Israel's sin but divine interventions. It does not always follow, when you or I sin, or when a nation abandons righteousness, that outside forces will overpower us.
What does always follow is inner deterioration. There is a loss of direction. There is growing conflict. These last chapters of Judges are added to show us what happened within Israel as a result of abandoning God's ways. It is, in fact, the inner deterioration that is the surest evidence. Abandoning God's standards sears the conscience and confuses the ability of the individual to distinguish between good and evil. No wonder Proverbs puts it the way it does. "There is a way that seems right to a man" (Proverbs 14:12). But that "way" is one of illusion. Yet there is a hard reality; the end toward which man's "right way" leads is the reality of death!
Lost legacy (Judges 17–18). The first of three stories steps outside of the earlier chronological sequence and into the intimate context of an Israelite family. Using the cameo, or slice-of-life approach, the author now moves on to demonstrate the impact of Israel's national apostasy on the lifestyle of individuals.
The first few verses of chapter 17 are enough to jolt us. If we're familiar with the lifestyle God defines for His people in the Mosaic Law, we're hardly prepared for what we see in this typical Ephraimite family. Judges 17:2-3 introduces Micah, a man who stole 1,100 pieces of silver from his mother and, moved by fear after overhearing his mother's curse on the thief, confessed. The curse was canceled by the mother's utterance of a blessing. Micah restored the silver, which was then dedicated to God to make idols for the household shrine!
Theft within the family? Superstition and fear? Worship of idols? Shrines in the house, and abandonment of the central sanctuary? Every one of these stands in stark contrast to the righteous way ordained by God for Israel. Every one of these is characteristic of the pagan culture Israel was to drive out and to supplant.
As we read on in the story, we see additional evidence that Israel had lost its moral bearings. Initial disobedience had led to an increasing loss of moral judgment. The ways of God were increasingly confused with and supplanted by the customs of the nearby pagans.
The story of Micah continues. Micah ordained one of his own sons to be a priest—again contrary to the Law. But when a wandering Levite (not one of Aaron's priestly line) passed by, Micah hired him to "be my father and priest" (Judges 17:10). Though Micah again violated instructions given in the Law, he was thrilled at the turn of events. "Now I know that the Lord will be good to me, since this Levite has become my priest" (Judges 17:13).
Some time later a group of Danites (1 of the 12 tribes) was exploring for more land to occupy. They recognized the young Levite, asked his blessing, and shortly afterward located a city in a hidden valley that was occupied by a colony of Sidonians (inhabitants of the pagan city of Sidon, near Tyre). Reporting on the successful reconnaissance, the Danites recommended the young Levite to their tribe. Some 600 men stopped by on the way to the Sidonian colony and offered the young Levite a "promotion." The Bible tells us that "the priest was glad" (Judges 18:20) at this invitation. He stole the idol and other objects in Micah's shrine, and gladly left his employer behind.
Micah pursued, complaining bitterly about the theft of his gods and his priest. The Danites threatened him; the betrayed man slunk sadly back home. As for the Danites, they went on to the colony town, Laish, killed all the Sidonians, and the Levite's descendants served as their priests, ministering at a worship center featuring Micah's idol!
This story is told without comment or evaluation. None is required. Over and over again the pattern of life described stands in stark contrast to the pattern prescribed in the divine revelation. Godly ways were a legacy Israel seemed to have lost.
Moral decay (Judges 19). The second story in this section of Judges does what no commentary could. We are shown vividly the moral and interpersonal implications of the loss of the divine legacy. In this story another Levite is featured.
We are told of the marriage of this other Levite to a secondary wife (a concubine), who angrily returned to her father's home after a spat. After four months, the Levite went to be reconciled to her — something welcomed by the father, as such a separation was both a reflection on his house and a threat to any bride price he may have received. After typical Eastern hospitality — a party of some five days — the Levite and his party left to return home.
As it was probably about three in the afternoon, they were unable to travel far. The Levite was unwilling to stop at Jebus (Jerusalem), for it was still occupied by pagans. Instead he went on to Gibeah, which was inhabited by Benjamites (1 of the 12 tribes).
But the man was offered no hospitality, except by a temporary resident from Ephraim. (This lack of hospitality violated basic Eastern custom.) That night the inhabitants of the city pounded on the door, announcing their intention to make the Levite a victim of homosexual assault! The Benjamites seemed on the verge of breaking in, so the Levite grabbed his concubine and thrust her outside to the men. The Scripture reports, "And they raped her and abused her throughout the night, and at dawn they let her go. At daybreak the woman went back to the house where her master was staying, fell down at the door, and lay there until daylight" (Judges 16:25–26).
In the Morning when the Levite opened the door, he found the girl crumpled outside, her hands stretched out to grip the threshold — dead.
The ways that had seemed "right" to Israel led to the depths of depravity, to unbelievable moral decay, and to death. For far more than physical death is pictured in this dark incident.
* There is the death of love. The Old Testament Law taught a person to love God and to love others as himself. Here was a Levite, who represented instruction in God's Law — selfishly thrusting his concubine out to a group of depraved perverts. The capacity to care for others dies when one deserts God's ways.
* There is the death of identity. The Levite and the old man with whom he stayed both showed that they viewed women as something less than human. In the Creation, woman was taken from man's ribs as a vivid affirmation of her identity with man. Woman was created second, but is not secondary. She is of the same stuff as man; with man she bears the image of God and bears the privilege of dominion (Genesis 1–2).
With the loss of the divine viewpoint, which came with abandonment of Israel's legacy of Law, there came the loss of woman's identity. Distortion of the divine plan brought a measure of death to men and women alike, for in denying woman full humanity, man denies himself.
* There is a death of image. Man was made in the image of God, with a personality to reflect the personality of the Creator. Even today, men choose to seek their identity in a supposed descent from the beasts — and choose to be ruled by their passions. Thus, the psalmists compare such men to brutes. Jude too sees them doing "by instinct, like unreasoning animals" the very things which destroy them (Jude 10). The depravity exhibited by the Benjamites clearly shows the degradation which comes when men lose sight of their divine image and deny their origins in Him.
The story of Micah and the Danites sets the stage for this tale of the Levite and his concubine. When men lose righteousness' way, depravity follows as night follows the waning of the day.
Conflict within (Judges 20–21). These two chapters continue the story of the Levite and his concubine. Taking the body home, the Levite cut it into pieces and sent the pieces throughout Israel. Shocked, the people gathered to hear the Levite's report (which carefully avoided mentioning his own cowardly part). Shocked as much by the way in which the Levite had dramatized the event as by the act, the tribes angrily agreed to punish Gibeah.
When the men of Benjamin would not surrender their relatives in Gibeah, a civil war resulted. Many thousands were killed, and the tribe of Benjamin was all but wiped out.
How different from the incident reported in Joshua 22, where all Israel was ready to war to keep some from beginning to sin! Here no discipline had been exercised to restrain sin from developing (the Law commands homosexuals be put to death). The war came when part of Israel proved unwilling to surrender murderers to justice.
Morality is never just an individual or personal thing. The strands which hold society together, which provide security for its members, are rooted in morality. When righteousness is abandoned and ways that "seem right" to men are allowed to substitute for the divine standards, the society itself has begun to rush down the road toward its own death.
On the Rock
Scripture does not argue or explain the universal truths which are God's firm expression of reality. Rather, the Bible tends to affirm — and to demonstrate. God's Word is true, not only because God is a trustworthy Person and it is He who has spoken, but also because the word which God speaks is in complete harmony with reality. That human experience conforms to the principles expressed in Scripture does not "prove" the Bible, but rather human experience serves to demonstrate Scripture's reliability and its relevance.
This is the function of this section of Judges as well, and the function of many Old Testament stories. They demonstrate and illustrate the reliability of the affirmations of God's Word. Through Moses and through Joshua, God had told Israel plainly that commitment to Him and to His ways would bring them blessing. "Righteousness exalts a nation" was true then, and it is true now.
But the same Word of God through Moses and Joshua had warned that disobedience carries within it the seeds of its own destruction. The time of the Judges graphically demonstrates this truth. The process of deterioration may take a longer or shorter time. The bitter and deadly fruit may require several generations to mature. But the Word of God is reliable. The death it foretells will come. Unshakable, and unbreakable, the Word expresses the realities by which human beings must live, whether they choose to live for God or not!
The Teacher's Commentary
Dictionary of Biblical Imagery
The name Benjamin means "son of my right hand." This itself points to Benjamin's role in biblical narrative: he is a favored son of Jacob, the latest to be born to a prolific patriarch, born of the favored wife Rachel (who died in Benjamin's childbirth).
In the Joseph narratives, Benjamin becomes a substitute when Joseph, Jacob's very favorite son, is sold into slavery and presumed to be dead. Jacob says that Benjamin's death will bring down his gray hair to Sheol, exactly as he had said of Joseph (Gen 42:38). Benjamin goes to Egypt by caravan as had Joseph (Gen 43:15); he receives the same favored treatment as Joseph (Gen 43:34); and eventually the attitude of the brothers toward Joseph is revealed in their attitude toward Benjamin. Appropriately to this substitute role, Benjamin is entirely passive, never speaking a word.
As the last to be born, Benjamin also represents the completion of the family of Israel in Genesis. Yet no sooner is he born and the family completed than the family starts to break apart with the death of his mother (Gen 35:16–20), followed by further family disruptions culminating in the sale of Joseph. But here as well, Benjamin represents the reconciliation of the complete family by his role in reuniting Joseph and his brothers.
In Judges the role of the tribe of Benjamin is reversed from the passive and positive role of the individual in Genesis. Now active, this "son of the right hand"
(Gen 35:18) has become an aggressive left-handed warrior. No longer a stand-in for Joseph, Benjamin now stands in contrast to Judah. The first judge, Othniel, is from the tribe of Judah (Judg 3:9–10). But the second, the left-handed and deceptive Ehud, for whom there is no mention of the Spirit, is from Benjamin (Judg 3:12–30). Later the hospitality of the Judahite father of the Levite's concubine contrasts with the lack of hospitality shown in Gibeah of the region of Benjamin (Judg 19:4–9, 15–21). The subsequent rape of the concubine marks that Benjaminite city as another Sodom (Judg 19:22–24), while the cutting of her body into twelve pieces to summon the tribes to avenge this atrocity is itself a grotesque and ambiguous act (Judg 19:29). On the surface the nation is being called together; in deep structure it is being cut apart. The contrast is further apparent when Benjamin sides with Gibeah, while Judah leads the assault against the town (Judg 20:12–13, 18). When Gibeah is finally taken by ambush, the reader is reminded of the use of the same deception in the original conquest of that territory, so that Benjamin symbolizes a reversal in the direction of the nation (Judg 20:29–47, cf Josh 8:4–25). By the end of Judges the brother who once was the reconciliation of his family has become the beginning of its dissolution.
In Samuel the choice of Saul of Gibeah as the first king is an ominous sign. An initial emphasis on the "least of the tribes" theme suggests connections with the positive "younger brother" theme in Genesis (1 Sam 9:21). But when Saul cuts a yoke of oxen into pieces to summon the nation to war (1 Sam 11:7), the reader knows that he is not the favored brother of Genesis, but the divisive and warlike Benjamin of Judges. Benjamin continues to represent divisive forces in the nation, especially in persons such as Sheba and Shemei (2 Sam 16:5–7; 20:1). Yet the ambiguity of Benjamin is aptly portrayed in the fact that David, while hiding from Saul at Ziklag, was joined by six hundred Benjaminites who, interestingly, could sling a stone with either their right hand or their left (1 Chron 12:1–2). It may be this legacy of zeal that Paul proudly claims when he reminds the Philippians that he is "of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews" (Phil 3:5).
During the divided monarchy Benjamin was often reckoned with Judah (e.g, 1 Kings 12:21). But Benjamin, now a divided tribe and the very ground on which Judah and Israel fought (1 Kings 15:16–22), was flanked on its southern border (its right hand) by Jerusalem (which originally belonged to Benjamin, cf Judg 1:21) with its temple of Yahweh, and on its northern border (its left hand) by Bethel (which also originally belonged to Benjamin, cf Josh 18:22) with its sanctuary for one of the golden calves. Is the tribe right-handed or left-handed? In either case, this youngest brother again reveals the heart of the rest of the brothers, and it is now a divided heart, in accordance with the seemingly contradictory blessings of Jacob and Moses (Gen 49:27; Deut 32:12).
Dictionary of Biblical Imagery
Judaism in the Land of Israel
The Temple was a dominant institution in the Judaism as practiced in the land, and later in the period synagogues served key functions, but there were other institutions that played central roles in society. Some information has survived regarding the political organization of the Jewish people in their land. A fundamental fact of life throughout the centuries of early Judaism was that Judah/Judea was under foreign control (Persia, the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Ptolemies and Seleucids, Rome), with the exception of a few decades when the Hasmoneans controlled the state and were somewhat independent of the Seleucid administration.
There was a governor in Jerusalem at a number of times, although the evidence is insufficient to show that there was always an office of this sort. Sheshbazzar (Ezra 5:14) and Zerubbabel (Hag. 1:1), perhaps both descendants of David, are called governors in the late sixth century, and
Nehemiah, who refers to his predecessors in the office (Neh. 5:15), served in the same capacity in the second half of the fifth century. An official named Bagohi/Bagoas/Bigvai was the governor at the end of the century according to one of the Elephantine papyri (TAD [Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt] A4.7 = CAP [Cowley, ed., Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century] 30), and a certain Hezekiah is called governor on some coins from the end of the Persian and perhaps the beginning of the Hellenistic periods. After this, there is a lengthy gap in attestations of a governor, and it may be that the high priest became the chief of state. This appears to be the case in the Tobiad Romance and also in Jerusalem as pictured at the beginning of the historical account in 2 Maccabees (3:1–4:6). In all of the narratives in 1–2 Maccabees, there is no mention of a governor other than a member of the Hasmonean family (the governor Philip in 1 Macc. 5:22 is a foreigner imposed from without for a short time).
When the Hasmoneans became high priests (starting in 152 B.C.E.), they also served as political leaders and army commanders. Beginning either in the short reign of Aristobulus I (104–103 B.C.E.) or in that of Alexander Jannaeus (103–76), these rulers called themselves kings. They retained that office (with one queen, Salome Alexandra) until the Roman conquest of the area in 63 B.C.E. Yet, even after this date a high priest such as Hyrcanus II enjoyed very high positions in society and is still called king a few times, and Antigonus briefly claimed the royal office (40–37 B.C.E.). Josephus indicates that in the first century the aristocratically constituted state of the Jews was led by the high priests (Ant. 20.251), although this was done under Roman supervision.
Herod’s appointment as king by the Roman senate profoundly changed the political landscape. From the time of his reign (37–4 B.C.E.) until the destruction of Jerusalem (and beyond), he and his descendants were dominant rulers among the Jews in the land. Herod held the office of king, as did two of his sons (Antipas [4 B.C.E.–39 C.E.] and Philip [4 B.C.E.–33/34 C.E.]) in parts of their father’s realm, while Archelaus (4 B.C.E.–6 C.E.), who inherited the rule of Judea, served as ethnarch until he was deposed for his incompetent and violent rule. In Judea the Romans then assumed more direct control by appointing prefects (from 6 to 41), among whom the best known is Pontius Pilate (26–36/37). King Agrippa I briefly reunited the kingdom of his grandfather Herod the Great (between 37 and 44) before dying at a young age. Following his death in 44 C.E., the Romans again assumed closer control by appointing procurators, an arrangement that lasted until the end of the revolt. During this latter period, Agrippa’s son Agrippa II came to have a significant influence in Jewish political and religious affairs.
A second institution that seems to have occupied an important place in Jewish society was the council of elders (gērousia in Greek) or Sanhedrin, if, as seems likely, the two terms refer to the same type of body. There are references in Ezra to “the elders” as an influential group, but whether they constituted a ruling body is not said
(Ezra 5:5, 9; 6:7, 14; in these passages they are involved in rebuilding the Temple and negotiations about it). Apart from the book of Judith (e.g., 4:8), which has a weak claim to historicity, the earliest mention of a council of elders is in Josephus’ citation of the letter issued by Antiochus III (223–187 B.C.E.) regarding the Jewish people: he says they with their senate (gērousia) greeted him when he visited the city (Ant. 12.138); later the king mentions the Jewish form of government and lists the senate among the groups exempt from three taxes (12.142). In 2 Macc. 4:4 the senate is the body that sends representatives to King Antiochus IV to press a case against the actions of the high priest Menelaus (vv. 43–50). In subsequent times the term continues to be used in official letters in which the leaders of the Jews are listed (e.g., 2 Macc. 1:10) or addressed (2 Macc. 11:27; 1 Macc. 12:6; 13:36 [where they are called “the elders”; see also 11:23; 12:35]; 14:20, 28 [in the section regarding the decree honoring Simon]). Josephus reports that Gabinius, a Roman official, set up five sanhedrins in Jewish territory in the 50s B.C.E. (Ant. 14.91), but not long afterward the historian relates the story of young Herod’s trial before the Sanhedrin (14.165–79). From this episode the judicial nature of the group’s work is clear, although it was definitely intimidated by the military power of Herod. The Sanhedrin as a judicial body is also evidenced in the trial of Jesus (Mark 14:53–65, where the members are identified as the high priest, the chief priests, elders, and scribes; Matt. 26:59–68; Luke 22:66–71) and that of his brother James (Ant. 20.199–203). The book of Acts, among several references to the council, includes Paul’s appearance before it; there the members are the high priest along with representatives of the Pharisees and the Sadducees (22:30–23:12). Rabbinic sources know of a Sanhedrin that was a gathering of scholars who, among other activities, discussed matters of religious law. How that picture relates to the earlier references in Josephus and other Greek sources is not entirely clear.
The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism
Run in such a way as to get the prize.
--- 1 Corinthians 9:24.
These words were taken from a runner running for a wager, a very apt picture to set before the eyes of the saints of the Lord. ( The World's Great Sermons (Volume 2, Hooker to South) ) That is, do not only run, but be sure you win as well as run.
Beware of bypaths. Mind the path before you, turn neither to the right nor to the left. Even though the kingdom of heaven is the biggest city, yet usually those bypaths are most beaten; most travelers go those ways. Yet, it is in this case as it was with the harlot of Jericho; she had one scarlet thread tied in her window by which her house was known; so it is here. The scarlet streams of Christ’s blood run throughout the way to the kingdom of heaven, but have a care you do not beguile yourself with a fancy. So that you may not be mistaken, consider, though it seem ever so pleasant, if you do not find that in the very middle of the road there is written with the heart-blood of Christ that he came into the world to save sinners and that we are justified though we are ungodly, shun that way. How easy a matter it is for the Devil to be too cunning for poor souls by calling his bypaths the way to the kingdom. How speedily, greedily, and by heaps do poor simple souls throw away themselves on it, especially if it is daubed over with a few external acts of morality. But it is because people do not know painted bypaths from the plain way to the kingdom of heaven. They have not yet learned the true Christ and what his righteousness is, neither have they a sense of their own insufficiency but are bold, proud, presumptuous, self-conceited.
Take heed that you do not have an ear open to everyone that calls after you as you are in your journey. People who run, if any call after them saying, “Do not go too fast and you will have my company with you,” if they run for some great matter, they say, “I can’t delay for you, I am running for a wager. If I win I am made, if I lose I am undone, therefore do not hinder me.” Thus are those wise who run for corruptible things, and thus should you do, and you have more cause to do so than they, for they run for things that do not last, but you for an incorruptible glory. You will have enough that call after you—the Devil, sin, this world, worthless company, pleasures, profits, esteem in human society, ease, pomp, pride—crying “Do not leave me behind.”
Take Heart: Daily Devotions with the Church's Great Preachers
Fighting Fundamentalist May 8
When theological liberalism invaded America in the early 1900s, an army of fundamentalists rose to defend the faith. Many were wise soldiers of the cross, but some were … well, overzealous.
J. Frank Norris grew up in a dilapidated shack in Texas. His father, an alcoholic sharecropper, beat him. He was converted as a teen, his mother telling him he was “someone of great worth who would be a leader of men.” Entering Baylor University, he dismayed classmates by predicting he would one day “preach in the greatest pulpit in the world.”
He was contentious. One day prankish students released a howling dog during chapel, and President O. H. Cooper, losing his temper, hurled the animal from the third-floor window. Norris notified the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and led a student protest, resulting in Cooper’s resignation.
Following graduation, Norris pastored Fort Worth’s First Baptist Church, soon making it the largest Protestant church in America. In 1935 he accepted Temple Baptist Church in Detroit and pastored both churches simultaneously, shuttling 1,200 miles between them for the rest of his life. He became one of America’s best-known preachers, his voice flooding airwaves, his articles filling publications. He was everywhere.
And he was contentious everywhere. Once from his pulpit he censured Fort Worth’s Catholic mayor. The following Saturday while Norris was preparing his sermon, a friend of the mayor called on him. Soon four shots rang out and the visitor fell dead. Norris was released on bond that afternoon. He immediately revised his sermon, and the next day all Fort Worth came to hear him preach from
Romans 8:1—If you belong to Christ Jesus, you won’t be punished. His trial preoccupied the nation, the jury finally declaring he had shot in self-defense.
Norris continued his combative ministry, winning souls, defending orthodoxy, fighting vice, attracting and repelling listeners. On May 8, 1947, editor Ralph McGill of the Atlanta Constitution wrote, “The Rev. J. Frank Norris and others like him, is one good, sound reason why there are 50,000,000 Americans who do not belong to any church at all.”
Norris died of heart failure shortly afterward, and only heaven knows whether he did more harm or good.
I am not trying to please people. I want to please God. Do you think I am trying to please people? If I were doing that, I would not be a servant of Christ. --- Galatians 1:10.
On This Day 365 Amazing And Inspiring Stories About Saints, Martyrs And Heroes
Daily Readings / CHARLES H. SPURGEON
Morning - May 8
“He that was healed wist not who it was.”
Years are short to the happy and healthy; but thirty-eight years of disease must have dragged a very weary length along the life of the poor impotent man. When Jesus, therefore, healed him by a word, while he lay at the pool of Bethesda, he was delightfully sensible of a change. Even so the sinner who has for weeks and months been paralysed with despair, and has wearily sighed for salvation, is very conscious of the change when the Lord Jesus speaks the word of power, and gives joy and peace in believing. The evil removed is too great to be removed without our discerning it; the life imparted is too remarkable to be possessed and remain inoperative; and the change wrought is too marvellous not to be perceived. Yet the poor man was ignorant of the author of his cure; he knew not the sacredness of his person, the offices which he sustained, or the errand which brought him among men. Much ignorance of Jesus may remain in hearts which yet feel the power of his blood. We must not hastily condemn men for lack of knowledge; but where we can see the faith which saves the soul, we must believe that salvation has been bestowed. The Holy Spirit makes men penitents long before he makes them divines; and he who believes what he knows, shall soon know more clearly what he believes. Ignorance is, however, an evil; for this poor man was much tantalized by the Pharisees, and was quite unable to cope with them. It is good to be able to answer gainsayers; but we cannot do so if we know not the Lord Jesus clearly and with understanding. The cure of his ignorance, however, soon followed the cure of his infirmity, for he was visited by the Lord in the temple; and after that gracious manifestation, he was found testifying that “it was Jesus who had made him whole.” Lord, if thou hast saved me, show me thyself, that I may declare thee to the sons of men.
Evening - May 8
“Acquaint now thyself with him.”
If we would rightly “acquaint ourselves with God, and be at peace,” we must know him as he has revealed himself, not only in the unity of his essence and subsistence, but also in the plurality of his persons. God said, “Let us make man in our own image”—let not man be content until he knows something of the “us” from whom his being was derived. Endeavour to know the Father; bury your head in his bosom in deep repentance, and confess that you are not worthy to be called his son; receive the kiss of his love; let the ring which is the token of his eternal faithfulness be on your finger; sit at his table and let your heart make merry in his grace. Then press forward and seek to know much of the Son of God who is the brightness of his Father’s glory, and yet in unspeakable condescension of grace became man for our sakes; know him in the singular complexity of his nature: eternal God, and yet suffering, finite man; follow him as he walks the waters with the tread of deity, and as he sits upon the well in the weariness of humanity. Be not satisfied unless you know much of Jesus Christ as your Friend, your Brother, your Husband, your all. Forget not the Holy Spirit; endeavour to obtain a clear view of his nature and character, his attributes, and his works. Behold that Spirit of the Lord, who first of all moved upon chaos, and brought forth order; who now visits the chaos of your soul, and creates the order of holiness.
Behold him as the Lord and giver of spiritual life, the Illuminator, the Instructor, the Comforter, and the Sanctifier. Behold him as, like holy unction, he descends upon the head of Jesus, and then afterwards rests upon you who are as the skirts of his garments. Such an intelligent, scriptural, and experimental belief in the Trinity in Unity is yours if you truly know God; and such knowledge brings peace indeed.
Morning and Evening
HIS EYE IS ON THE SPARROW
Civilla D. Martin, 1869–1948
Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground apart from the will of your Father in heaven. And even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. So don’t be afraid; you are worth more than sparrows. (Matthew 10:29–31)
Mrs. Civilla Martin, author of this Gospel hymn text, tells of a visit in 1904 to a bedridden Christian friend. Mrs. Martin asked the woman if she ever got discouraged because of her physical condition. Her friend responded quickly: “Mrs. Martin, how can I be discouraged when my heavenly Father watches over each little sparrow and I know He loves and cares for me.” Within just a few minutes Mrs. Martin completed the writing of her new text, which has since been a source of much encouragement to many of God’s people.
It is interesting that our Lord chose the most common of all birds, sparrows of little value, to teach a profound truth: In God’s eyes, no one is insignificant! He is vitally concerned with even the details of our lives. Notice also that the Bible uses another bird to teach this inspiring truth: “Those who hope in the Lord will soar on wings like eagles …” (Isaiah 40:31). With an awareness of God’s concern for our lives and the promise of His enabling power to live victoriously, why should we be afraid?
Though the fig tree does not bud and there are no grapes on the vines, yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will be joyful in God my Savior. (Habakkuk 3:17, 18)
Why should I feel discouraged,
why should the shadows come,
why should my heart be lonely
and long for Heav’n and home,
when Jesus is my portion?
My constant Friend is He:
His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know He watches me;
His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know He watches me.
“Let not your heart be troubled,”
His tender word I hear,
and resting on His goodness,
I lose my doubts and fears;
tho’ by the path He leadeth
but one step I may see:
His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know He watches me;
His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know we watches me.
Whenever I am tempted,
whenever clouds arise,
when songs give place to sighing,
when hope within me dies,
I draw the closer to Him;
from care He sets me free;
His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know He watches me;
His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know He watches me.
Refrain: I sing because I’m happy,
I sing because I’m free,
for His eye is on the sparrow,
and I know He watches me.
For Today: Psalm 40:17; Matthew 6:28; Luke 12:6, 7, 22–31; James 1:1–11.
Rest and rejoice in the assurance of God’s love. Seek to bring a word of cheerful encouragement to some sick or invalid individual. Remind him or her of God’s concern and the truth of this song.
Amazing Grace: 366 Inspiring Hymn Stories for Daily Devotions
Martin Luther | (1483-1546)
Sect. XVIII. — HERE you produce similitudes (in which you aim at appearing to abound, and to use very appropriately); that is, — ‘that there are diseases, which may be borne with less evil than they can be cured: as the leprosy, &c.’ You add, moreover, the example of Paul, who makes a distinction between those things that are lawful, and those that are not expedient. “It is lawful (you say) to speak the truth; but, before every one, at all times, and in every way, it is not expedient.” —
How copious an orator! And yet you understand nothing of what you are saying. In a word, you treat this discussion, as though it were some matter between you and me only, about the recovering of some money that was at stake, or some other trivial thing, the loss of which, as being of much less consideration than the general peace of the community, ought not so to concern any one, but that he may yield, act and suffer upon the occasion, in any way that may prevent the necessity of the whole world being thrown into a tumult. Wherein, you plainly evince, that this peace and tranquillity of the flesh, are, with you, a matter of far greater consideration than faith, than conscience, than salvation, than the Word of God, than the glory of Christ, than God Himself! Wherefore, let me tell you this; and I entreat you to let it sink deep into your mind — I am, in this discussion, seeking an object solemn and essential; nay, such, and so great, that it ought to be maintained and defended through death itself; and that, although the whole world should not only be thrown into tumult and set in arms thereby, but even if it should be hurled into chaos and reduced to nothing. — If you cannot receive this, or if you are not affected by it, do you mind your own business, and allow us to receive it and to be affected by it, to whom it is given of God.
For, by the grace of God, I am not so great a fool or madman, as to have desired to sustain and defend this cause so long, with so much fortitude and so much firmness, (which you call obstinacy) in the face of so many dangers of my life, so much hatred, so many traps laid for me; in a word, in the face of the fury of men and devils — I have not done this for money, for that I neither have nor desire; nor for vain-glory, for that, if I wished, I could not obtain in a world so enraged against me, nor for the life for my body, for that cannot be made sure of for an hour. — Do you think, then, that you only have a heart that is moved by these tumults? Yet, I am not made of stone, nor was I born from the Marpesian rocks. But since it cannot be otherwise, I choose rather to be battered in temporal tumult, happy in the grace of God, for God’s word’s sake, which is to be maintained with a mind incorrupt and invincible, than to be ground to powder in eternal tumult, under the wrath of God and torments intolerable! May Christ grant, what I desire and hope, that your heart may not be such — but certainly your words imply, that, with Epicurus, you consider the Word of God and a future life, to be mere fables. For, in your instructions, you would have us, for the sake of the Popes, the heads, and the peace of the community, to put off, upon an occasion, and depart from the all-certain word of God: whereas, if we put off that, we put off God, faith, salvation and all Christianity together. How far different from this is the instruction of Christ: that, we should rather despise the whole world!
The Bondage of the Will or Christian Classics Ethereal Library