(ctrl) and (+) magnifies screen if type too small.              me         quotes             scripture verse             footnotes       Words of Jesus      Links

5/6/2018     Yesterday     Tomorrow
Numbers 14     Psalm 50     Isaiah 3-4     Hebrews 11

Numbers 14

The People Rebel

Numbers 14:1 Then all the congregation raised a loud cry, and the people wept that night. 2 And all the people of Israel grumbled against Moses and Aaron. The whole congregation said to them, “Would that we had died in the land of Egypt! Or would that we had died in this wilderness! 3 Why is the LORD bringing us into this land, to fall by the sword? Our wives and our little ones will become a prey. Would it not be better for us to go back to Egypt?” According to Tan. B. IV, 84; BaR 16.3: Sifre D., 24; Midrash Tannaim 12. the people told Moses 4 And they said to one another, “Let us choose a leader and go back to Egypt.”

5 Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the people of Israel. 6 And Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, who were among those who had spied out the land, tore their clothes 7 and said to all the congregation of the people of Israel, “The land, which we passed through to spy it out, is an exceedingly good land. 8 If the LORD delights in us, he will bring us into this land and give it to us, a land that flows with milk and honey. 9 Only do not rebel against the LORD. And do not fear the people of the land, for they are bread for us. Their protection is removed from them, and the LORD is with us; do not fear them.” 10 Then all the congregation said to stone them with stones. But the glory of the LORD appeared at the tent of meeting to all the people of Israel.

11 And the LORD said to Moses, “How long will this people despise me? And how long will they not believe in me, in spite of all the signs that I have done among them? 12 I will strike them with the pestilence and disinherit them, and I will make of you a nation greater and mightier than they.”

     Jewish sources paint a traumatic story of this night of weeping. They say the people cried long and loud, because of the report of the spies, that continued to be retold and retold throughout the camp. Basically the people believed the spies with the bad report more than God. Remember, they had God's presence among them, but so do we. How many times do I believe situations and circumstances more than God, despite God's past faithfulness? Even now I struggle to believe in good things though God has promised to guide the footsteps of the righteous. Righteous means in good relationship with God. Am I in good relationship with God? If I were wouldn't my faith be stronger? Relationship is not works. We wrongfully blame God for our own sin. We are called to live by faith. Lack of faith is sin.

     The people's lack of faith and loud weeping were the reason, Yelammedenu in Yalkut I, 743 on Num. 14:1, also Sifre D. On the “night of weeping”, see Sotah 65a; Taʿanit 29a; Yerushalmi 4, 68d; Tan. B. IV, 690; Tan. Shelah 12; BaR 16.20; ER 29, 145; Ekah 1.60–61; Targum Yerushalmi Num. 14:1; Jerome on Zech. 8:18–19. that God decreed to destroy the Temple on the ninth day of Ab. On the ninth day of Ab the people had wept without cause. Little did they know their lack of faith would mean that future generations of Israel would weep with good cause.

Moses Intercedes for the People

13 But Moses said to the LORD, “Then the Egyptians will hear of it, for you brought up this people in your might from among them, 14 and they will tell the inhabitants of this land. They have heard that you, O LORD, are in the midst of this people. For you, O LORD, are seen face to face, and your cloud stands over them and you go before them, in a pillar of cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. 15 Now if you kill this people as one man, then the nations who have heard your fame will say, 16 ‘It is because the LORD was not able to bring this people into the land that he swore to give to them that he has killed them in the wilderness.’ 17 And now, please let the power of the Lord be great as you have promised, saying, 18 ‘The LORD is slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, forgiving iniquity and transgression, but he will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, to the third and the fourth generation.’ 19 Please pardon the iniquity of this people, according to the greatness of your steadfast love, just as you have forgiven this people, from Egypt until now.”

God Promises Judgment

20 Then the LORD said, “I have pardoned, according to your word. 21 But truly, as I live, and as all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the LORD, 22 none of the men who have seen my glory and my signs that I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and yet have put me to the test these ten times and have not obeyed my voice, 23 shall see the land that I swore to give to their fathers. And none of those who despised me shall see it. 24 But my servant Caleb, because he has a different spirit and has followed me fully, I will bring into the land into which he went, and his descendants shall possess it. 25 Now, since the Amalekites and the Canaanites dwell in the valleys, turn tomorrow and set out for the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea.”

26 And the LORD spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying, 27 “How long shall this wicked congregation grumble against me? I have heard the grumblings of the people of Israel, which they grumble against me. 28 Say to them, ‘As I live, declares the LORD, what you have said in my hearing I will do to you: 29 your dead bodies shall fall in this wilderness, and of all your number, listed in the census from twenty years old and upward, who have grumbled against me, 30 not one shall come into the land where I swore that I would make you dwell, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun. 31 But your little ones, who you said would become a prey, I will bring in, and they shall know the land that you have rejected. 32 But as for you, your dead bodies shall fall in this wilderness. 33 And your children shall be shepherds in the wilderness forty years and shall suffer for your faithlessness, until the last of your dead bodies lies in the wilderness. 34 According to the number of the days in which you spied out the land, forty days, a year for each day, you shall bear your iniquity forty years, and you shall know my displeasure.’ 35 I, the LORD, have spoken. Surely this will I do to all this wicked congregation who are gathered together against me: in this wilderness they shall come to a full end, and there they shall die.”

36 And the men whom Moses sent to spy out the land, who returned and made all the congregation grumble against him by bringing up a bad report about the land— 37 the men who brought up a bad report of the land—died by plague before the LORD. 38 Of those men who went to spy out the land, only Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh remained alive.

Israel Defeated in Battle

39 When Moses told these words to all the people of Israel, the people mourned greatly. 40 And they rose early in the morning and went up to the heights of the hill country, saying, “Here we are. We will go up to the place that the LORD has promised, for we have sinned.” 41 But Moses said, “Why now are you transgressing the command of the LORD, when that will not succeed? 42 Do not go up, for the LORD is not among you, lest you be struck down before your enemies. 43 For there the Amalekites and the Canaanites are facing you, and you shall fall by the sword. Because you have turned back from following the LORD, the LORD will not be with you.” 44 But they presumed to go up to the heights of the hill country, although neither the ark of the covenant of the LORD nor Moses departed out of the camp. 45 Then the Amalekites and the Canaanites who lived in that hill country came down and defeated them and pursued them, even to Hormah.

Psalm 50

God Himself Is Judge

Psalm 50:1 A Psalm Of Asaph.

1  The Mighty One, God the LORD,
speaks and summons the earth
from the rising of the sun to its setting.
2  Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty,
God shines forth.

3  Our God comes; he does not keep silence;
before him is a devouring fire,
around him a mighty tempest.
4  He calls to the heavens above
and to the earth, that he may judge his people:
5  “Gather to me my faithful ones,
who made a covenant with me by sacrifice!”
6  The heavens declare his righteousness,
for God himself is judge! Selah

7  “Hear, O my people, and I will speak;
O Israel, I will testify against you.
I am God, your God.
8  Not for your sacrifices do I rebuke you;
your burnt offerings are continually before me.
9  I will not accept a bull from your house
or goats from your folds.
10  For every beast of the forest is mine,
the cattle on a thousand hills.
11  I know all the birds of the hills,
and all that moves in the field is mine.

12  “If I were hungry, I would not tell you,
for the world and its fullness are mine.
13  Do I eat the flesh of bulls
or drink the blood of goats?
14  Offer to God a sacrifice of thanksgiving,
and perform your vows to the Most High,
15  and call upon me in the day of trouble;
I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me.”

16  But to the wicked God says:
“What right have you to recite my statutes
or take my covenant on your lips?
17  For you hate discipline,
and you cast my words behind you.
18  If you see a thief, you are pleased with him,
and you keep company with adulterers.

19  “You give your mouth free rein for evil,
and your tongue frames deceit.
20  You sit and speak against your brother;
you slander your own mother’s son.
21  These things you have done, and I have been silent;
you thought that I was one like yourself.
But now I rebuke you and lay the charge before you.

22  “Mark this, then, you who forget God,
lest I tear you apart, and there be none to deliver!
23  The one who offers thanksgiving as his sacrifice glorifies me;
to one who orders his way rightly
I will show the salvation of God!”

Isaiah 3

Judgment on Judah and Jerusalem

Isaiah 3:1

For behold, the Lord GOD of hosts
is taking away from Jerusalem and from Judah
support and supply,
all support of bread,
and all support of water;
2  the mighty man and the soldier,
the judge and the prophet,
the diviner and the elder,
3  the captain of fifty
and the man of rank,
the counselor and the skillful magician
and the expert in charms.
4  And I will make boys their princes,
and infants shall rule over them.
5  And the people will oppress one another,
every one his fellow
and every one his neighbor;
the youth will be insolent to the elder,
and the despised to the honorable.

6  For a man will take hold of his brother
in the house of his father, saying:
“You have a cloak;
you shall be our leader,
and this heap of ruins
shall be under your rule”;
7  in that day he will speak out, saying:
“I will not be a healer;
in my house there is neither bread nor cloak;
you shall not make me
leader of the people.”
8  For Jerusalem has stumbled,
and Judah has fallen,
because their speech and their deeds are against the LORD,
defying his glorious presence.

9  For the look on their faces bears witness against them;
they proclaim their sin like Sodom;
they do not hide it.
Woe to them!
For they have brought evil on themselves.
10  Tell the righteous that it shall be well with them,
for they shall eat the fruit of their deeds.
11  Woe to the wicked! It shall be ill with him,
for what his hands have dealt out shall be done to him.
12  My people—infants are their oppressors,
and women rule over them.
O my people, your guides mislead you
and they have swallowed up the course of your paths.

13  The LORD has taken his place to contend;
he stands to judge peoples.
14  The LORD will enter into judgment
with the elders and princes of his people:
“It is you who have devoured the vineyard,
the spoil of the poor is in your houses.
15  What do you mean by crushing my people,
by grinding the face of the poor?”
declares the Lord GOD of hosts.

16  The LORD said:
Because the daughters of Zion are haughty
and walk with outstretched necks,
glancing wantonly with their eyes,
mincing along as they go,
tinkling with their feet,
17  therefore the Lord will strike with a scab
the heads of the daughters of Zion,
and the LORD will lay bare their secret parts.

18 In that day the Lord will take away the finery of the anklets, the headbands, and the crescents; 19 the pendants, the bracelets, and the scarves; 20 the headdresses, the armlets, the sashes, the perfume boxes, and the amulets; 21 the signet rings and nose rings; 22 the festal robes, the mantles, the cloaks, and the handbags; 23 the mirrors, the linen garments, the turbans, and the veils.

24  Instead of perfume there will be rottenness;
and instead of a belt, a rope;
and instead of well-set hair, baldness;
and instead of a rich robe, a skirt of sackcloth;
and branding instead of beauty.
25  Your men shall fall by the sword
and your mighty men in battle.
26  And her gates shall lament and mourn;
empty, she shall sit on the ground.

Isaiah 4

Isaiah 4:1 And seven women shall take hold of one man in that day, saying, “We will eat our own bread and wear our own clothes, only let us be called by your name; take away our reproach.”

The Branch of the LORD Glorified

2 In that day the branch of the LORD shall be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the land shall be the pride and honor of the survivors of Israel. 3 And he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy, everyone who has been recorded for life in Jerusalem, 4 when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion and cleansed the bloodstains of Jerusalem from its midst by a spirit of judgment and by a spirit of burning. 5 Then the LORD will create over the whole site of Mount Zion and over her assemblies a cloud by day, and smoke and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory there will be a canopy. 6 There will be a booth for shade by day from the heat, and for a refuge and a shelter from the storm and rain.

Hebrews 11

By Faith

Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. 2 For by it the people of old received their commendation. 3 By faith we understand that the universe was created by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things that are visible.

4 By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain, through which he was commended as righteous, God commending him by accepting his gifts. And through his faith, though he died, he still speaks. 5 By faith Enoch was taken up so that he should not see death, and he was not found, because God had taken him. Now before he was taken he was commended as having pleased God. 6 And without faith it is impossible to please him, for whoever would draw near to God must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him. 7 By faith Noah, being warned by God concerning events as yet unseen, in reverent fear constructed an ark for the saving of his household. By this he condemned the world and became an heir of the righteousness that comes by faith.

8 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going. 9 By faith he went to live in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, living in tents with Isaac and Jacob, heirs with him of the same promise. 10 For he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God. 11 By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive, even when she was past the age, since she considered him faithful who had promised. 12 Therefore from one man, and him as good as dead, were born descendants as many as the stars of heaven and as many as the innumerable grains of sand by the seashore. 13 These all died in faith, not having received the things promised, but having seen them and greeted them from afar, and having acknowledged that they were strangers and exiles on the earth. 14 For people who speak thus make it clear that they are seeking a homeland. 15 If they had been thinking of that land from which they had gone out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he has prepared for them a city.

17 By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was in the act of offering up his only son, 18 of whom it was said, “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.” 19 He considered that God was able even to raise him from the dead, from which, figuratively speaking, he did receive him back. 20 By faith Isaac invoked future blessings on Jacob and Esau. 21 By faith Jacob, when dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph,   ( When the writer of Hebrews came to describe an incident from the life of Jacob that was representative of his faith, what did he choose? Not Jacob’s wrestling with the angel, or his journey to Egypt, but his blessing of Joseph’s sons. The significance of what we might be tempted to regard as a minor detail is found in the fact that Jacob was revealing to his posterity the fact that God had plans and purposes for them. He was declaring anew his faith in the certainty of God’s promises. For you see, the promises were only good if God’s word proved to be true. Jacob was convinced that God was true to His word and that the land promised to him would be given to him and his descendants. )  The Hand of God: Finding His Care in All Circumstances   bowing in worship over the head of his staff. 22 By faith Joseph, at the end of his life, made mention of the exodus of the Israelites and gave directions concerning his bones.

23 By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden for three months by his parents, because they saw that the child was beautiful, and they were not afraid of the king’s edict. 24 By faith Moses, when he was grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, 25 choosing rather to be mistreated with the people of God than to enjoy the fleeting pleasures of sin. 26 He considered the reproach of Christ greater wealth than the treasures of Egypt, for he was looking to the reward. 27 By faith he left Egypt, not being afraid of the anger of the king, for he endured as seeing him who is invisible. 28 By faith he kept the Passover and sprinkled the blood, so that the Destroyer of the firstborn might not touch them.

29 By faith the people crossed the Red Sea as on dry land, but the Egyptians, when they attempted to do the same, were drowned. 30 By faith the walls of Jericho fell down after they had been encircled for seven days. 31 By faith Rahab the prostitute did not perish with those who were disobedient, because she had given a friendly welcome to the spies. 32 And what more shall I say? For time would fail me to tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets— 33 who through faith conquered kingdoms, enforced justice, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, 34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, were made strong out of weakness, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. 35 Women received back their dead by resurrection. Some were tortured, refusing to accept release, so that they might rise again to a better life. 36 Others suffered mocking and flogging, and even chains and imprisonment. 37 They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were killed with the sword. They went about in skins of sheep and goats, destitute, afflicted, mistreated— 38 of whom the world was not worthy—wandering about in deserts and mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. 39 And all these, though commended through their faith, did not receive what was promised, 40 since God had provided something better for us, that apart from us they should not be made perfect.

The Reformation Study Bible

What I'm Reading

Misreading the Bible because we are Western

By Scot McKnight 11/1/2012

     I speak, of course, only of Westerners. Ah-ha moments in Bible reading come to all of us, and perhaps you can remember one and tells us about it, but I can remember a few: when I realized the Bible’s writers and characters were ancient Jews and not modern American (Baptists), that they spoke Hebrew and Aramaic and Greek and Latin, that contemporary Jewish texts shed light constantly all over the Bible,  that Paul’s letters were written before the Gospels, that the Gospels grew over time, that Isaiah was not written by the same author all at once … and then there was the colossal realization that Western senses of self, freedom, and individualism just don’t compute with ancient Jewish, Greek or Roman perceptions. That our theological issues are not theirs. That those folks cared lots about purity — and purity doesn’t mean to us what it meant then. That capitalism was unknown to the Bible. That young adults didn’t fall in love, date, and then choose the one they wanted to marry. That marriage itself didn’t mean to them quite what it means to us. I could go on…

     What many of us have come to realize is that we get in the way at times when we are reading the Bible. That we impose, many times unintentionally and unconsciously, our world on the Bible and need to work at hearing the Bible in terms of the ancient world.

     What are your best lessons in Bible reading? What were some of your ah-ha moments? When did you realize the gulf or gap between our culture and the Bible’s culture? When did you learn, or how did you learn, the Bible was not American, or European, or Australian, or whatever your culture is?

     So I’ve got a book recommendation for you by E. Randolph Richards and Brandon J. O’Brien called Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes: Removing Cultural Blinders to Better Understand the Bible [if IVP can split infinitives I guess it doesn’t matter anymore?]. As I read through this book I kept asking myself if this was a 9-poster book or a one-poster and I’ve decided to keep it at one and hope you will consider purchasing it and using it in your own Bible reading.

Click here to go to source

     Scot McKnight is a recognized authority on the New Testament, early Christianity, and the historical Jesus. McKnight, author or editor of more than fifty books, is the Julius R. Mantey Professor of New Testament at Northern Seminary in Lombard, IL.  Dr. McKnight has given interviews on radios across the nation, has appeared on television, and is regularly speaks at local churches, conferences, colleges, and seminaries in the USA and abroad. Dr. McKnight obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Nottingham (1986) and has been a professor for more than three decades.

     Scot McKnight is a member of the Society of Biblical Literature and the Society for New Testament Studies. He is the author of the award-winning The Jesus Creed: Loving God, Loving Others, which won the Christianity Today book of the year for Christian Living. His books include Embracing Grace: A Gospel for All of UsThe Story of the ChristPraying with the Church: Following Jesus Daily, Hourly, TodayThe Real Mary: Why Evangelical Christians Can Embrace the Mother of JesusA Community Called Atonement (Living Theology). He broadened his Jesus Creed project in writing a daily devotional: 40 Days Living the Jesus Creed. His studies in conversion were expanded with his newest book, Finding Faith, Losing Faith: Stories of Conversion and Apostasy, a book he co-authored with his former student Hauna Ondrey. Other books are The Blue Parakeet: Rethinking How You Read the Bible and Fasting: The Ancient Practices, as well as A Fellowship of Differents: Showing the World God's Design for Life Together and Kingdom Conspiracy: Returning to the Radical Mission of the Local Church.

     McKnight wrote a commentary on James (The Letter of James (The New International Commentary on the New Testament)), a book on discipleship (One.Life: Jesus Calls, We Follow), and a Jesus Creed book for high school students (with Syler Thomas and Chris Folmsbee) called The Jesus Creed for Students: Loving God, Loving Others. His research on gospel was published in the Fall of 2011 in a book called The King Jesus Gospel: The Original Good News Revisited. Along with Joe Modica, McKnight co-edited Jesus Is Lord, Caesar Is Not: Evaluating Empire in New Testament Studies. Also he published an e-book affirming the importance of the doctrine of perseverance in a book called A Long Faithfulness: The Case for Christian Perseverance. His most recent commentary is Sermon on the Mount (The Story of God Bible Commentary). In the Fall of 2015 his book on heaven appeared: The Heaven Promise: Engaging the Bible's Truth About Life to Come, and he has a book appearing in 2017 The Hum of Angels: Listening for the Messengers of God Around Us.

     He co-wrote with his daughter a Jesus Creed book for children: Sharing God's Love: The Jesus Creed for Chldren.

     McKnight’s current projects is a commentary on Colossians (Eerdmans) as well as a book on the Holy Spirit.

     Other books include Who Do My Opponents Say That I Am?: An Investigation of the Accusations Against the Historical Jesus (The Library of New Testament Studies)Jesus and His Death: Historiography, the Historical Jesus, and Atonement TheoryLight Among the Gentiles: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period by Scot McKnight (1991-04-02)A New Vision for Israel: The Teachings of Jesus in National Context (Studying the Historical Jesus)Turning to Jesus: The Sociology of Conversion in the GospelsGalatians (The NIV Application Commentary) and Galatians (The NIV Application Commentary)Interpreting the Synoptic Gospels (Guides to New Testament Exegesis), and he is a co-editor with J.B. Green and I.H. Marshall of the award-winning Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (The IVP Bible Dictionary Series) as well as the co-editor, with J.D.G. Dunn, The Historical Jesus in Recent Research. He regularly contributes chapter length studies to dictionaries, encyclopedias, books and articles for magazines and online webzines. McKnight’s books have been translated into Chinese, Korean, Russian, and Portuguese.

     Scot McKnight was also ordained by Bishop Todd Hunter to the Diaconate in Churches for the Sake of Others, a segment of Anglican Churches of North America. He and Kris are active in their church, Church of the Redeemer.

     McKnight blogs at Jesus Creed.

     Scot McKnight was elected into the Hall of Honor at Cornerstone University in honor of his basketball accomplishments during his college career. He and his wife, Kristen, live in Libertyville, Illinois. They enjoy traveling, long walks, gardening, and cooking. They have two adult children, Laura (married to Mark Barringer) and Lukas (married to Annika Nelson), and two grandchildren: Aksel and Finley.

Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes

By Robert Letham 4/24/2013

     Randolph Richards, dean of the School of Ministry and professor of biblical studies at Palm Beach Atlantic University, and his former student, Brandon O’Brien, editor at large for Leadership Journal and a doctoral student at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, together address the problem of cultural self-awareness in readers of Scripture. This is a common problem in reading ancient texts or interpreting the work of others. Richards brings to the task years of experience as a missionary in Indonesia, where cultural norms and mores are often radically different than in the West. The main thesis of Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes is that those living in Western societies are frequently blind to the cultural nuances those living in other cultures take for granted. As a result, Westerners may often miss the point of a biblical passage, whether narrative or didactic. In its tone and contents Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes: Removing Cultural Blinders to Better Understand the Bible is addressed largely, though not necessarily exclusively, to a lay readership living in the United States. It’s intended to enable readers to understand themselves in their cultural differences as a prelude to approaching and reading the biblical text.

     Richards and O’Brien identify nine areas where interpretive problems commonly arise. Some cultural differences are obvious, others lurk beneath the surface, while a third class is extremely difficult to detect and thus poses the greatest danger to the reader of Scripture. The point is that most of these differences go unsaid, being implicit rather than clearly expressed. The first group, explained in chapters one to three, consists of cultural mores, the copious scriptural references to race and ethnicity in Scripture—with the overtones and undertones conveyed to the original readers—and varying significance given to different literary genres. In the second group, Richards and O’Brien contrast the rampant individualism of American society with the corporate and collectivist cultures that prevail in the East. They devote a chapter to the honor-shame nature of the Oriental world in contrast to the dominance of individual conscience and guilt in the West (following Augustine). Indeed, there are radical differences between the two worlds. In the final section, attention turns to the prominence of rules in the West vis-à-vis relationships in the East, to the concepts of virtue and vice, and to a Western obsession with individual, personal relevance that assumes Scripture was written directly to and for me.

     There is much in Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes that will be of value to its intended readership, and its main purpose is both necessary and laudable. If it succeeds in convincing persons that, in order to grasp what Scripture is saying to our generation, we must first uncover what it said to its original readers, then it will have achieved a great gain. Moreover, there are a number of insights that make a valuable contribution. The chapter on race and ethnicity is a case in point; the divisions in Corinth may have arisen, it is proposed, from these factors, with Alexandrian Jews looking to Apollos, Aramaic speakers lining up behind Cephas (note: not Peter!), and others being ethnic Corinthians. Richards and O’Brien’s treatment of individualism is also likely to be of value in a culture to which the corporate categories of both the Old and New Testaments are alien. Talk of sin and salvation as a matter of being in Adam or in Christ doesn’t drip readily off American preachers’ lips, nor does the household nature of covenantal administration fit the rugged individualism of the frontier.

     At the same time, however, there are a number of significant weaknesses. I shall pinpoint four main areas.

Click here to go to source

     Robert Letham is a lecturer in systematic and historical theology at Wales Evangelical School of Theology in Bridgend, Wales.

How Significant Books Become Good Friends

By Richard Foster 5/1/2017

     Writing this article was spiritually dangerous for me, for underlying such a task was the subtle but persistent temptation to impress rather than to help. (And I am not at all sure I have successfully avoided that temptation.)

     When, however, I realized the assignment was not actually to list “My Choice of Books” but to honestly record the books that have profoundly influenced my life, the temptation lost its power, for while I wish I could tell you how deeply influenced I was as a child by reading Dostoyevsky and Tolstoy, Shakespeare and Milton, such was not the case. So I will share simply something of the pilgrimage of my mind and soul.

     Soon after my conversion as a teenager, I was particularly drawn to the Book of Romans, which I studied for two years. I read the rest of the Bible too, but always I came back to Romans. Why? I’m not sure except that a youth pastor encouraged me. It wasn’t stuffy and academic to me as it was to some—to the contrary, every verse seemed to throb with intensity and fire. It worked theology into me more profoundly than anything before or since.

     As a college student I wanted to understand what a life of faith and prayer looked like in practice. Hudson Taylor’s Spiritual Secret best represents those years of seeking. Taylor’s life and faith moved me profoundly. Shadow of the Almighty was another book that helped me immensely—I read it perhaps twelve times in those years, memorizing several passages. Biographies of Adoniram Judson, C. T. Studd, George Muller, William Carey, David Livingstone, Francis Asbury, and David Brainerd all helped to flesh out the meaning of faith.

Click here to go to source

     About Richard Foster

Books by Richard Foster
Celebration of Discipline: The Path To Spiritual Growth
Prayer: Finding the Heart's True Home
Spiritual Classics: Selected Readings on the Twelve Spiritual Disciplines
Freedom of Simplicity: Finding Harmony in a Complex World
Life with God: Reading the Bible for Spiritual Transformation
Sanctuary of the Soul: Journey into Meditative Prayer
The Challenge of the Disciplined Life: Christian Reflections on Money, Sex, and Power
Prayers from the Heart
Prayer: Finding the Heart's True Home
Longing for God: Seven Paths of Christian Devotion (Renovare Resources)
Money, Sex and Power

How Do We Understand and Reach Generation Z?

By Sean McDowell 2/2/2017

     For the past few months I have been reading every study I can find on Generation Z, (those born between 1995-2010). With the help of a graduate student who did some research for me, I found over 350 pages of research on Gen Z, which took me dozens of hours to carefully digest.

     But then last week I came across Meet Generation Z, by James Emery White. Had I found this book earlier, it would have saved me a ton of time! It is an easy-to-read, documented, and insightful look at how to understand and reach the newest generation of students.

     Here are three interesting cultural insights that White notes before delving into some specifics of Generation Z. They help provide some of the backdrop for understanding young people today:


  1. Theological controversies of the past included Christology, the Holy Spirit, revelation and more, but the big issue today is the doctrine of humanity (in light of human cloning, transsexualism, and stem cell research).
  2. The heart of secularism is functional atheism, which is not rejecting God, but simply ignoring Him.
  3. Of the 85 percent of American adults who were raised Christian, nearly a quarter no longer identify with Christianity.
Click here to go to source

Sean McDowell, Ph.D. is a professor of Christian Apologetics at Biola University, a best-selling author of over 18 books, an internationally recognized speaker, a part-time high school teacher, and the Resident Scholar for Summit, California. Follow him on Twitter: @sean_mcdowell and his blog: seanmcdowell.org.Books By Sean McDowell

Books By Sean McDowell

Is God Just a Human Invention? And Seventeen Other Questions Raised by the New Atheists
A New Kind of Apologist: *Adopting Fresh Strategies *Addressing the Latest Issues *Engaging the Culture
The Beauty of Intolerance: Setting a Generation Free to Know Truth and Love
Same-Sex Marriage: A Thoughtful Approach to God's Design for Marriage (Thoughtful Response)
ETHIX: Being Bold in a Whatever World
More Than a Carpenter

Read The Psalms In "1" Year

Psalm 46

God Is Our Fortress
46 To The Choirmaster. Of The Sons Of Korah. According To Alamoth. A Song.

1 God is our refuge and strength,
a very present help in trouble.
2 Therefore we will not fear though the earth gives way,
though the mountains be moved into the heart of the sea,
3 though its waters roar and foam,
though the mountains tremble at its swelling. Selah

4 There is a river whose streams make glad the city of God,
the holy habitation of the Most High.
5 God is in the midst of her; she shall not be moved;
God will help her when morning dawns.
6 The nations rage, the kingdoms totter;
he utters his voice, the earth melts.
7 The LORD of hosts is with us;
the God of Jacob is our fortress. Selah

ESV Study Bible

Are All Sins Equal to God?

By Michael Patton 1/23/2017

     During my ordination, one of the questions that I was asked by a seminary professor was “Are all sins equal in the sight of God?” I hesitated. Not because I did not have a strong opinion on this, but because I was not sure what the answer was that he was looking for. Are all sins equal in the sight of God? My ordination may have depended on the answer.

     It is very common within popular evangelicalism to answer this question in the affirmative. This was one of the main assumptions in a book that I just recommended last week. Most find this theological concept very appealing and accept it, I am afraid to say, without doing much homework.

     I think this tendency to assume that all sins are equal in the sight of God comes by means of three influences.

     1) A reaction by Protestants against the Roman Catholic distinction between mortal sins (sins that kill justifying grace) and venial sin (sins of a lesser nature that do not kill justifying grace).

2) A tendency within our evangelistic church culture to express common ground with unbelievers—i.e., if all sins are equal in God’s sight, then your sin is not worse than any other. This way we are not coming across as judgmental or condescending.

3) Some biblical passages that have been interpreted in such a way (discussed below).

Click here to go to source

     About Michael Patton | Th.M. Dallas Theological Seminar, president of Credo House Ministries, best latte maker at Credo House (when I am the only one working), author of Now that I'm a Christian (Crossway, 2014) Increase My Faith (Credo House, 2011), and The Theology Program (Reclaiming the Mind Ministries, 2001-2006), and primary blogger here at Parchment and Pen. But, most importantly, husband to a beautiful wife and father to four awesome children.

Did Jesus Get “This Generation” Wrong?

By Nate Sala 2/20/2017

     “What answer would you guys give to those who question Matt 24:34 and say, ‘See? They’re dead, it’s not real!’ I know that even C.S. Lewis struggled with it and while I’ve been studying this, the best rebuttals I’ve seen would be ‘translation’ because some say ‘…this age’ or ‘…this people’. Or, to interpret it as Jesus speaking to ‘the last generation’ before his return. However, I think most skeptics would shrug off those explanations. I mean, I would if I were a skeptic. I’d be like, ‘Really? That’s all you got?’ So, I was curious, what do you guys think about Matt 24:34 and what’s the best way to defend it?” – Misty Callahan

     Nate: Hi Misty! Thanks very much for the question and the opportunity to respond. The passage you’re referring to is in the Olivet Discourse where Jesus is talking about the signs of His coming and the end of the age. In v. 34 he concludes His prophetic descriptions with:

     “TRULY I SAY TO YOU, THIS GENERATION WILL NOT PASS AWAY UNTIL ALL THESE THINGS TAKE PLACE.” \ So then the obvious question arises: Who is the generation? As you pointed out, C.S. Lewis struggled with this passage. As a matter of fact, he called it the most embarrassing verse in the Bible because, taken in a straightforward sense, it appears that Jesus is making a prophecy that is applicable only to the generation alive in His day. But the generation Jesus was speaking to is long dead now and He has not physically returned yet. So what’s the deal with that??

     I’m not sure if C.S. Lewis was aware of this but there are different schools of thought when it comes to the Olivet Discourse and the Book of Revelation. Laying all of them out would be a task in and of itself. I’m just going to give a brief explanation and sketch of how I understand Jesus in this passage. I take the preterist position[1] that Jesus was speaking to His original hearers about the coming destruction of the temple in Jerusalem. Therefore, the answer to the skeptic here is that there is no problem with an unfulfilled prophecy. It’s already been fulfilled.

Click here to go to source

     English and Forensics Teacher. B.Sc., M.Ed. University of Nevada Las Vegas. Lives in Las Vegas with his wife, two sons, and dogs.

What Will You Do When the End Comes?

By John Piper 8/30/2016

     “An appalling and horrible thing
     “has happened in the land:
     “the prophets prophesy falsely,
     “and the priests rule at their direction;
     “my people love to have it so,
     “but what will you do when the end comes? (Jeremiah 5:30–31)

     This is a plea that pastors, evangelists, teachers, parents, and friends warn those they love that, if they do not repent, they will be speechless, helpless, and hopeless when the end comes.

     I say this as a Christian Hedonist — as one who believes, down to his toenails, that joyless compliance with God’s commands is useless in the last day — that without satisfaction in God himself, all repentance is vain.

     For there is no such thing as repentance without satisfaction in God. This is the essence of sin — being more satisfied with anything above God (Romans 1:23). Joyless repentance is an oxymoron, because the sin we must repent from is finding little joy in God.

     What was this “appalling and horrible thing” that Jeremiah said had happened in the land? “Prophets prophesy falsely.” Priests fall in line with the falsehood. And the people “love to have it so.” They love it — love it.

Click here to go to source

     John Piper is founder and teacher of desiringGod.org and chancellor of Bethlehem College & Seminary. For 33 years, he served as pastor of Bethlehem Baptist Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota. He is author of more than 50 books, including Reading the Bible Supernaturally: Seeing and Savoring the Glory of God in Scripture.

Come, Lord Jesus

By Matthew Westerholm 4/17/2016

     “I recently compared two large selections of worship songs. The first was the most commonly sung congregational songs in the United States since the year 2000; the second was the most commonly published congregational songs from 1730–1850. Among many similarities, one difference was striking: Our churches no longer sing about Christ’s second coming as much as we used to.

     Perhaps this makes some sense. Among other things, it can be embarrassing to Christians when people publically conjecture regarding the time of Christ’s return. Their speculation begins with certainty on a precise date, but ends with ridicule on the local news.

     Jesus himself warned us against this type of conjecture (Mark 13:32; Acts 1:7). The apostle Paul warned that Christ’s return wasn’t a topic for speculation, but for preparation (Romans 13:11–12). But Paul also disapproved of a reactionary stance that minimized the believer’s longing for Christ’s second coming.

     Encourage One Another | In his letter to the church in Thessalonica, Paul instructs believers concerning the return of Christ, the resurrection of deceased believers, and the reunion of all believers with the King. He concludes, “Therefore encourage one another with these words” (1 Thessalonians 4:18).

     Christians ought to encourage each other with words and songs about Christ’s return. One easy way to be encouraged by the reality of Christ’s return is found at the end of the Bible. It is a four-word prayer in Revelation 22:20 that ought to regularly be on the lips of every follower of Jesus — and a theme to restore to its rightful place in our corporate worship: “Amen. Come, Lord Jesus.”

Click here to go to source

      (@mwesterholm) serves at Bethlehem Baptist Church as a pastor for worship and music. He lives in Minneapolis with his wife and three sons.

The Closing Ceremonies and the End of History

By Ed Uszynski 2/22/2014

     “The opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympic Games have become events themselves, bookends to the highly anticipated competitions they bracket. Given the estimated billion people who watched both the Beijing and London opening ceremonies, the pre- and post- event spectacles arguably attract larger followings than the competitions themselves.

     During these non-competitive portions of the games, we experience national pride in our “home team” combined with the collective joy that accompanies a veritable international carnival, along with the aura of seemingly indestructible confidence radiating from human bodies at their physical peak. As delivered through our televisions, everyone gathered in the stadium appears to be friends, and once again we’re reminded of the humanistic spirit behind the modern Olympics — the creation of the “why can’t we all just get along?” vibe that arrives the moment the first team enters the venue.

     Is This the True Peace? | The five interlocking rings which brand each Olympic gathering contain symbolism toward this noble goal of world peace, “represent[ing] the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic games.” For athletes from Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceana, the two-week window of competition attempts to temporarily transcend the social and political realities facing them at home, offering a “union” that illustrates the humanistic hope of a life lived in peace under the global sun.

     Occasionally, however, even amid heavily armed security — its presence alone an ironic counter to the pretense of a manufactured global peace — social and political turmoil still force their way into the Olympic narrative. Recalling as examples the tragedies of the 1972 Israeli murders in Munich, the 1996 park bombing in Atlanta, and the mutual boycotting of the games by the United States and the USSR in 1980 and 1984, we are reminded that the message of peace created by sporting events and choreographed harmony is a constantly frustrated mirage, a hope that cannot be satisfied in this life.

     The Day Is Coming | Nevertheless, the ceremonies offer a beautiful, yet distorted, shadow of another envisioned spectacle, where the nations gather together once again and the hope of peace is finally and fully realized. The writer of Revelation describes a reoccurring futuristic scene, saying,

Click here to go to source

     Ed Uszynski Ed Uszynski (PhD in American Culture Studies) works with Athletes in Action, the sport ministry of Cru, and is an elder at Emmanuel Baptist Church in Xenia, Ohio. He and his wife, Amy, have four children. He works out his salvation as a long-suffering fan of Cleveland sports teams.

Numbers 14; Psalm 50; Isaiah 3-4; Hebrew 11

By Don Carson 5/6/2018

Numbers 14; Psalm 50; Isaiah 3-4; Hebrew 11

By Don Carson 5/6/2018

     Another day thinking about rebellion — this time the rebellion displayed by the people at Kedesh Barnea, when they forfeited the opportunity to enter the Promised Land because of their sin (Num. 14).

     (1) Just as in the previous chapter the ten spies who gave a negative report were responsible for discouraging the people, so the people are responsible to decide to whom they will give heed. They simply go with the majority. If they had adhered to the covenant to which they had pledged themselves, if they had remembered what God had already done for them, they would have sided with Caleb and Joshua. Those who side with the majority voice and not with the word of God are always wrong and are courting disaster.

     (2) To doubt the covenantal faithfulness of God, not the least his ability and his will to save his own people and to do what he has said he will do, is to treat God with contempt (14:11, 23). Virtually all perpetual grumbling partakes of such contempt. This is a great evil.

     (3) People often hide their own lack of faith, their blatant unbelief, by erecting a pious front. Here they express their concern that their wives and children will be taken as plunder (14:3). Instead of admitting they are scared to death and turning to God for help, implicitly they blame God for being less concerned for their wives and children than they are themselves.

     (4) The punishment exacted therefore precisely suits the crime: that adult generation, with a couple of exceptions, dies out in the desert before their children (the very children about whom they profess such concern) inherit the land almost forty years later (14:20-35).

     (5) There is a kind of repentance that grieves over past failures but is not resolved to submit to the word of God. The Israelites grieve — and decide to take over the Promised Land, even though God has now told them not to attempt it, since he will no longer be their bulwark and strength. Moses rightly sees that this is nothing other than further disobedience (14:41). Inevitably they are beaten up for their pains (14:44-45).

     These five characteristics of this terrible rebellion are not unknown today: a popular adherence to majority religious opinion with very little concern to know and obey the word of God, an indifferent dismissal of God with contempt stemming from rank unbelief, pious excuses that mask fear and unbelief, temporal judgments that kill any possibility of courageous Christian work, and a faulty and superficial “repentance” that leaves a meeting determined to make things right, and yet is still unwilling to listen to the Word of God and obey him. God help us all.

Click here to go to source

Don Carson is research professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, and co-founder (with Tim Keller) of The Gospel Coalition. He has authored numerous books, and recently edited The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures (Eerdmans, 2016).

Don Carson Books:

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

Translated by Henry Beveridge

     CHAPTER 24.


The title of this chapter shows that it consists of two parts,--I. The case of the Elect, from sec. 1-11. II. The case of the Reprobate, from sec. 12-17.


1. The election of God is secret, but is manifested by effectual calling. The nature of this effectual calling. How election and effectual calling are founded on the free mercy of God. A cavil of certain expositors refuted by the words of Augustine. An exception disposed of.

2. Calling proved to be free, 1. By its nature and the mode in which it is dispensed. 2. By the word of God. 3. By the calling of Abraham, the father of the faithful. 4. By the testimony of John. 5. By the example of those who have been called.

3. The pure doctrine of the calling of the elect misunderstood, 1. By those who attribute too much to the human will. 2. By those who make election dependent on faith. This error amply refuted.

4. In this and the five following sections the certainty of election vindicated from the assaults of Satan. The leading arguments are:1. Effectual calling. 2. Christ apprehended by faith. 3. The protection of Christ, the guardian of the elect. We must not attempt to penetrate to the hidden recesses of the divine wisdom, in order to learn what is decreed with regard to us at the judgment-seat. We must begin and end with the call of God. This confirmed by an apposite saying of Bernard.

5. Christ the foundation of this calling and election. He who does not lean on him alone cannot be certain of his election. He is the faithful interpreter of the eternal counsel in regard to our salvation.

6. Another security of our election is the protection of Christ our Shepherd. How it is manifested to us. Objection 1. As to the future state. 2. As to perseverance. Both objections refuted.

7. Objection, that those who seem elected sometimes fall away. Answer. A passage of Paul dissuading us from security explained. The kind of fear required in the elect.

8. Explanation of the saying, that many are called, but few chosen. A twofold call.

9. Explanation of the passage, that none is lost but the son of perdition. Refutation of an objection to the certainty of election.

10. Explanation of the passages urged against the certainty of election. Examples by which some attempt to prove that the seed of election is sown in the hearts of the elect from their very birth. Answer. 1. One or two examples do not make the rule. 2. This view opposed to Scripture. 3. Is expressly opposed by an apostle.

11. An explanation and confirmation of the third answer.

12. Second part of the chapter, which treats of the reprobate. Some of them God deprives of the opportunity of hearing his word. Others he blinds and stupefies the more by the preaching of it.

13. Of this no other account can be given than that the reprobate are vessels fitted for destruction. This confirmed by the case of the elect; of Pharaoh and of the Jewish people both before and after the manifestation of Christ.

14. Question, Why does God blind the reprobate? Two answers. These confirmed by different passages of Scripture. Objection of the reprobate. Answer.

15. Objection to this doctrine of the righteous rejection of the reprobate. The first founded on a passage in Ezekiel. The passage explained.

16. A second objection founded on a passage in Paul. The apostle's meaning explained. A third objection and fourth objection answered.

17. A fifth objection--viz. that there seems to be a twofold will in God. Answer. Other objections and answers. Conclusion.

1. But that the subject may be more fully illustrated, we must treat both of the calling of the elect, and of the blinding and hardening of the ungodly. The former I have already in some measure discussed (chap. 22, sec. 10, 11), when refuting the error of those who think that the general terms in which the promises are made place the whole human race on a level. The special election which otherwise would remain hidden in God, he at length manifests by his calling. "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son." Moreover, "whom he did predestinate, them he also called; and whom he called, them he also justified," that he may one day glorify (Rom. 8:29, 30). Though the Lord, by electing his people, adopted them as his sons, we, however, see that they do not come into possession of this great good until they are called; but when called, the enjoyment of their election is in some measure communicated to them. For which reason the Spirit which they receive is termed by Paul both the "Spirit of adoption," and the "seal" and "earnest" of the future inheritance; because by his testimony he confirms and seals the certainty of future adoption on their hearts. For although the preaching of the gospel springs from the fountain of election, yet being common to them with the reprobate, it would not be in itself a solid proof. God, however, teaches his elect effectually when he brings them to faith, as we formerly quoted from the words of our Savior, "Not that any man has seen the Father, save he which is of God, he has seen the Father," (John 6:46). Again, "I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world," (John 17:6). He says in another passage, "No man can come to me, except the Father which has sent me draw him," (John 6:44). This passage Augustine ably expounds in these words: "If (as Truth says) every one who has learned comes, then every one who does not come has not learned. It does not therefore follow that he who can come does come, unless he have willed and done it; but every one who has learned of the Father, not only can come, but also comes; the antecedence of possibility [504] the affection of will, and the effect of action being now present," (August. de Grat. Chr. Cont. Pelag., Lib. 1, c. 14, 31). In another passage, he says still more clearly, "What means, Every one that has heard and learned of the Father comes unto me, but just that there is no one who hears and learns of the Father that does not come to me? For if every one who has heard and learned, comes; assuredly every one who does not come, has neither heard nor learned of the Father: for if he had heard and learned, he would come. Far removed from carnal sense is this school in which the Father is heard and teaches us to come to the Son," (August. de Prædes. Sanct. c. 8). Shortly after, he says, "This grace, which is secretly imparted to the hearts of men, is not received by any hard heart; for the reason for which it is given is, that the hardness of the heart may first be taken away. Hence, when the Father is heard within, he takes away the stony heart, and gives a heart of flesh. Thus he makes them sons of promise and vessels of mercy, which he has prepared for glory. Why then does he not teach all to come to Christ, but just because all whom he teaches he teaches in mercy, while those whom he teaches not he teaches not in judgment? for he pities whom he will, and hardens whom he will." Those, therefore, whom God has chosen he adopts as sons, while he becomes to them a Father. By calling, moreover, he admits them to his family, and unites them to himself, that they may be one with him. When calling is thus added to election, the Scripture plainly intimates that nothing is to be looked for in it but the free mercy of God. For if we ask whom it is he calls, and for what reason, he answers, it is those whom he had chosen. When we come to election, mercy alone everywhere appears; and, accordingly, in this the saying of Paul is truly realized, "So then, it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that showeth mercy," (Rom. 9:16); and that not as is commonly understood by those who share the result between the grace of God and the will and agency of man. For their exposition is, that the desire and endeavor of sinners are of no avail by themselves, unless accompanied by the grace of God, but that when aided by his blessing, they also do their part in procuring salvation. This cavil I prefer refuting in the words of Augustine rather than my own: "If all that the apostle meant is, that it is not alone of him that willeth, or of him that runneth, unless the Lord be present in mercy, we may retort and hold the converse, that it is not of mercy alone, unless willing and running be present," (August. Enchir. ad Laurent., c. 31). But if this is manifestly impious, let us have no doubt that the apostle attributes all to the mercy of the Lord, and leaves nothing to our wills or exertions. Such were the sentiments of that holy man. I set not the value of a straw on the subtlety to which they have recourse--viz. that Paul would not have spoken thus had there not been some will and effort on our part. For he considered not what might be in man; but seeing that certain persons ascribed a part of salvation to the industry of man, he simply condemned their error in the former clause, and then claimed the whole substance of salvation for the divine mercy. And what else do the prophets than perpetually proclaim the free calling of God?

2. Moreover, this is clearly demonstrated by the nature and dispensation of calling, which consists not merely of the preaching of the word, but also of the illumination of the Spirit. Who those are to whom God offers his word is explained by the prophet, "I am sought of them that asked not for me: I am found of them that sought me not: I said, Behold me, behold me, unto a nation that was not called by my name," (Isaiah 65:1). And lest the Jews should think that that mercy applied only to the Gentiles, he calls to their remembrance whence it was he took their father Abraham when he condescended to be his friend (Isaiah 41:8); namely, from the midst of idolatry, in which he was plunged with all his people. When he first shines with the light of his word on the undeserving, he gives a sufficiently clear proof of his free goodness. Here, therefore, boundless goodness is displayed, but not so as to bring all to salvation, since a heavier judgment awaits the reprobate for rejecting the evidence of his love. God also, to display his own glory, withholds from them the effectual agency of his Spirit. Therefore, this inward calling is an infallible pledge of salvation. Hence the words of John, "Hereby we know that he abideth in us by the Spirit which he has given us," (1 John 3:24). And lest the flesh should glory, in at least responding to him, when he calls and spontaneously offers himself, he affirms that there would be no ears to hear, no eyes to see, did not he give them. And he acts not according to the gratitude of each, but according to his election. Of this you have a striking example in Luke, when the Jews and Gentiles in common heard the discourse of Paul and Barnabas. Though they were all instructed in the same word, it is said, that "as many as were ordained to eternal life believed," (Acts 13:48). How can we deny that calling is gratuitous, when election alone reigns in it even to its conclusion?

3. Two errors are here to be avoided. Some make man a fellow-worker with God in such a sense, that man's suffrage ratifies election, so that, according to them, the will of man is superior to the counsel of God. As if Scripture taught that only the power of being able to believe is given us, and not rather faith itself. Others, although they do not so much impair the grace of the Holy Spirit, yet, induced by what means I know not, make election dependent on faith, as if it were doubtful and ineffectual till confirmed by faith. There can be no doubt, indeed, that in regard to us it is so confirmed. Moreover, we have already seen, that the secret counsel of God, which lay concealed, is thus brought to light, by this nothing more being understood than that that which was unknown is proved, and as it were sealed. But it is false to say that election is then only effectual after we have embraced the gospel, and that it thence derives its vigor. It is true that we must there look for its certainty, because, if we attempt to penetrate to the secret ordination of God, we shall be engulfed in that profound abyss. But when the Lord has manifested it to us, we must ascend higher in order that the effect may not bury the cause. For what can be more absurd and unbecoming, than while Scripture teaches that we are illuminated as God has chosen us, our eyes should be so dazzled with the brightness of this light, as to refuse to attend to election? Meanwhile, I deny not that, in order to be assured of our salvation, we must begin with the word, and that our confidence ought to go no farther than the word when we invoke God the Father. For some to obtain more certainty of the counsel of God (which is nigh us in our mouth, and in our heart, Deut. 30:14), absurdly desire to fly above the clouds. We must, therefore, curb that temerity by the soberness of faith, and be satisfied to have God as the witness of his hidden grace in the external word; provided always that the channel in which the water flows, and out of which we may freely drink, does not prevent us from paying due honor to the fountain.

4. Therefore as those are in error who make the power of election dependent on the faith by which we perceive that we are elected, so we shall follow the best order, if, in seeking the certainty of our election, we cleave to those posterior signs which are sure attestations to it. Among the temptations with which Satan assaults believers, none is greater or more perilous, than when disquieting them with doubts as to their election, he at the same time stimulates them with a depraved desire of inquiring after it out of the proper way. (See Luther in Genes. cap. 26). By inquiring out of the proper way, I mean when puny man endeavors to penetrate to the hidden recesses of the divine wisdom, and goes back even to the remotest eternity, in order that he may understand what final determination God has made with regard to him. In this way he plunges headlong into an immense abyss, involves himself in numberless inextricable snares, and buries himself in the thickest darkness. For it is right that the stupidity of the human mind should be punished with fearful destruction, whenever it attempts to rise in its own strength to the height of divine wisdom. And this temptation is the more fatal, that it is the temptation to which of all others almost all of us are most prone. For there is scarcely a mind in which the thought does not sometimes rise, Whence your salvation but from the election of God? But what proof have you of your election? When once this thought has taken possession of any individual, it keeps him perpetually miserable, subjects him to dire torment, or throws him into a state of complete stupor. I cannot wish a stronger proof of the depraved ideas, which men of this description form of predestination, than experience itself furnishes, since the mind cannot be infected by a more pestilential error than that which disturbs the conscience, and deprives it of peace and tranquillity in regard to God. Therefore, as we dread shipwreck, we must avoid this rock, which is fatal to every one who strikes upon it. And though the discussion of predestination is regarded as a perilous sea, yet in sailing over it the navigation is calm and safe, nay pleasant, provided we do not voluntarily court danger. For as a fatal abyss engulfs those who, to be assured of their election, pry into the eternal counsel of God without the word, yet those who investigate it rightly, and in the order in which it is exhibited in the word, reap from it rich fruits of consolation.

Let our method of inquiry then be, to begin with the calling of God and to end with it. Although there is nothing in this to prevent believers from feeling that the blessings which they daily receive from the hand of God originate in that secret adoption, as they themselves express it in Isaiah, "Thou hast done wonderful things; thy counsels of old are faithfulness and truth," (Isa. 25:1). For with this as a pledge, God is pleased to assure us of as much of his counsel as can be lawfully known. But lest any should think that testimony weak, let us consider what clearness and certainty it gives us. On this subject there is an apposite passage in Bernard. After speaking of the reprobate, he says, "The purpose of God stands, the sentence of peace on those that fear him also stands, a sentence concealing their bad and recompensing their good qualities; so that, in a wondrous manner, not only their good but their bad qualities work together for good. Who will lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? It is completely sufficient for my justification to have him propitious against whom only I have sinned. Every thing which he has decreed not to impute to me, is as if it had never been." A little after he says, "O the place of true rest, a place which I consider not unworthy of the name of inner-chamber, where God is seen, not as if disturbed with anger, or distracted by care, but where his will is proved to be good, and acceptable, and perfect. That vision does not terrify but soothe, does not excite restless curiosity but calms it, does not fatigue but tranquilizes the senses. Here is true rest. A tranquil God tranquilizes all things; and to see him at rest, is to be at rest," (Bernard, super Cantic. Serm. 14).

5. First, if we seek for the paternal mercy and favor of God, we must turn our eyes to Christ, in whom alone the Father is well pleased (Mt. 3:17). When we seek for salvation, life, and a blessed immortality, to him also must we retake ourselves, since he alone is the fountain of life and the anchor of salvation, and the heir of the kingdom of heaven. Then what is the end of election, but just that, being adopted as sons by the heavenly Father, we may by his favor obtain salvation and immortality? How much soever you may speculate and discuss you will perceive that in its ultimate object it goes no farther. Hence, those whom God has adopted as sons, he is said to have elected, not in themselves, but in Christ Jesus (Eph. 1:4); because he could love them only in him, and only as being previously made partakers with him, honor them with the inheritance of his kingdom. But if we are elected in him, we cannot find the certainty of our election in ourselves; and not even in God the Father, if we look at him apart from the Son. Christ, then, is the mirror in which we ought, and in which, without deception, we may contemplate our election. For since it is into his body that the Father has decreed to ingraft those whom from eternity he wished to be his, that he may regard as sons all whom he acknowledges to be his members, if we are in communion with Christ, we have proof sufficiently clear and strong that we are written in the Book of Life. Moreover, he admitted us to sure communion with himself, when, by the preaching of the gospel, he declared that he was given us by the Father, to be ours with all his blessings (Rom. 8:32). We are said to be clothed with him, to be one with him, that we may live, because he himself lives. The doctrine is often repeated, "God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life," (John 3:16). He who believes in him is said to have passed from death unto life (John 5:24). In this sense he calls himself the bread of life, of which if a man eat, he shall never die (John 6:35). He, I say, was our witness, that all by whom he is received in faith will be regarded by our heavenly Father as sons. If we long for more than to be regarded as sons of God and heirs, we must ascend above Christ. But if this is our final goal, how infatuated is it to seek out of him what we have already obtained in him, and can only find in him? Besides, as he is the Eternal Wisdom, the Immutable Truth, the Determinate Counsel of the Father, there is no room for fear that any thing which he tells us will vary in the minutest degree from that will of the Father after which we inquire. Nay, rather he faithfully discloses it to us as it was from the beginning, and always will be. The practical influence of this doctrine ought also to be exhibited in our prayers. For though a belief of our election animates us to involve God, yet when we frame our prayers, it were preposterous to obtrude it upon God, or to stipulate in this way, "O Lord, if I am elected, hear me." He would have us to rest satisfied with his promises, and not to inquire elsewhere whether or not he is disposed to hear us. We shall thus be disentangled from many snares, if we know how to make a right use of what is rightly written; but let us not inconsiderately wrest it to purposes different from that to which it ought to be confined.

6. Another confirmation tending to establish our confidence is, that our election is connected with our calling. For those whom Christ enlightens with the knowledge of his name, and admits into the bosom of his Church, he is said to take under his guardianship and protection. All whom he thus receives are said to be committed and entrusted to him by the Father, that they may be kept unto life eternal. What would we have? Christ proclaims aloud that all whom the Father is pleased to save he has delivered into his protection (John 6:37-39, 17:6, 12). Therefore, if we would know whether God cares for our salvation, let us ask whether he has committed us to Christ, whom he has appointed to be the only Savior of all his people. Then, if we doubt whether we are received into the protection of Christ, he obviates the doubt when he spontaneously offers himself as our Shepherd, and declares that we are of the number of his sheep if we hear his voice (John 10:3, 16). Let us, therefore, embrace Christ, who is kindly offered to us, and comes forth to meet us: he will number us among his flock, and keep us within his fold. But anxiety arises as to our future state. [505] For as Paul teaches, that those are called who were previously elected, so our Savior shows that many are called, but few chosen (Mt. 22:14). Nay, even Paul himself dissuades us from security, when he says, "Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall," (1 Cor. 10:12). And again, "Well, because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not high-minded, but fear: for if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee," (Rom. 11:20, 21). In fine, we are sufficiently taught by experience itself, that calling and faith are of little value without perseverance, which, however, is not the gift of all. But Christ has freed us from anxiety on this head; for the following promises undoubtedly have respect to the future: "All that the Father giveth me shall come to me, and him that comes to me I will in no wise cast out." Again, "This is the will of him that sent me, that of all which he has given me I should lose nothing; but should raise it up at the last day," (John 6:37, 39). Again "My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me: and I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. My Father which gave them me is greater than all: and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand," (John 10:27, 28). Again, when he declares, "Every plant which my heavenly Father has not planted shall be rooted up," (Mt. 15:13), he intimates conversely that those who have their root in God can never be deprived of their salvation. Agreeable to this are the words of John, "If they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us," (1 John 2:19). Hence, also, the magnificent triumph of Paul over life and death, things present, and things to come (Rom. 8:38). This must be founded on the gift of perseverance. There is no doubt that he employs the sentiment as applicable to all the elect. Paul elsewhere says, "Being confident of this very thing, that he who has begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ," (Phil. 1:6). David, also, when his faith threatened to fail, leant on this support, "Forsake not the works of thy hands." Moreover, it cannot be doubted, that since Christ prays for all the elect, he asks the same thing for them as he asked for Peter--viz. that their faith fail not (Luke 22:32). Hence we infer, that there is no danger of their falling away, since the Son of God, who asks that their piety may prove constant, never meets with a refusal. What then did our Savior intend to teach us by this prayer, but just to confide, that whenever we are his our eternal salvation is secure?

     Christian Classics Ethereal Library / Public Domain      Institutes of the Christian Religion

  • Christianity & Tech
  • Faith & Public
  • Graduate Theological Studies

#1 Craig Gay   Regent College (Vancouver, BC)


#2 Preston Manning   Regent College (Vancouver, BC)


#3 Regent Students   Regent College (Vancouver, BC)


     Devotionals, notes, poetry and more

coram Deo
     12/1/2005    Awaiting His Return

     There is a widespread fascination with the end of the world. Throughout history, we have witnessed the bold assertions of soothsayers, naysayers, and doomsdayers. Every day, self-proclaimed prophets of the end times make whimsical predictions about the future. Claiming to have biblical authority, they tout their cleverly devised schemes about the end of the world as we know it, and by reading between the lines of the Old Testament prophetical books, they carefully contort the words of sacred Scripture to fit their fictional fantasies about the second advent of Christ.

     Christians throughout the world have become so enamored with some obscure aspect about the second advent of Christ that they construct their entire systems of doctrine upon what might happen — not upon what has happened. We are, indeed, called to live with eager expectation of the second advent of Christ, but we should only do so in light of the first advent of Christ. In remembrance of Christ’s first advent, it is not enough simply to wish Jesus a happy birthday. In fact, to do so borders on blasphemy. Instead, we are called to remember and to celebrate the incarnation of the Son of God, the second person of the Trinity, the eternal Logos.

     At the first advent of Jesus Christ, the fullness of time had come and God sent forth His Son into this fallen world. As the prophets foretold, He was born of a virgin who was richly blessed of God. He was born under the law of God, not to abolish the Law but to fulfill it. As was necessary to redeem those under the Law, He fulfilled the righteous demands of the Law and took upon Himself the sins of His people, His sheep for whom He laid down His life.

     As His people, we confess that Christ shall come again to judge the quick and the dead. We believe He will return to this world not as a babe in a manger but as the King of all the earth, in power and glory to manifest His reign over the new heavens and the new earth.

     We confess His return because of what He taught us at His first advent and on account of the hope that is within us. For this reason, during the wonderful Advent season that comes each year, we should eagerly await the second advent of Christ as we celebrate the first advent of Christ. Nevertheless, let us always be mindful that although Christmas day comes only once a year, we are called to remember and celebrate the eternal work of Christ — past, present, and future — each day of our lives coram Deo, before the face of God.

     click here for article source

     Dr. Burk Parsons (@BurkParsons) is editor of Tabletalk magazine, senior pastor of Saint Andrew’s Chapel in Sanford, Fla., a visiting lecturer at Reformed Theological Seminary, and a Ligonier Ministries teaching fellow. He is editor of John Calvin: A Heart for Devotion, Doctrine, and Doxology.

Ligonier     coram Deo (definition)

American Minute
     by Bill Federer

     In exchange for some brass buttons, and scarlet cloth worth about twenty-four dollars, Manhattan Island was purchased from the Manhattan Indian tribe on this day, May 6, 1626, by the Peter Minuit, governor of the New Netherlands province. Naming the Island New Amsterdam, it was later taken over by the British and renamed New York City. The original Charter of Freedoms for the colony stated: "The… colonists shall… in the speediest manner, endeavor to find out ways… whereby they may support a Minister and Schoolmaster, that thus the service of God and zeal for religion may not grow cool and be neglected."

American Minute

Lean Into God
     Compilation by RickAdams7

Being free means
"being free for the other,"
because the other has bound me to him.

Only in relationship with the other am I free.
--- Dietrich Bonhoeffer
Creation and Fall Temptation: Two Biblical Studies

Man is unjust, but God is just;
--- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Poems & Other Writings: (Library of America 118)

Oh! how many Christians look upon it as a burden and a tax, and a duty, and a difficulty to be often alone with God! That is the great hindrance to our Christian life everywhere. We need more quiet fellowship with God, and I tell you in the name of the heavenly Vine that you cannot be healthy branches, branches into which the heavenly sap can flow, unless you take plenty of time for communion with God. If you are not willing to sacrifice time to get alone with Him, and to give Him time every day to work in you, and to keep up the link of connection between you and Himself, He cannot give you that blessing of His unbroken fellowship. Jesus Christ asks you to live in close communion with Him. Let every heart say: "O, Christ, it is this I long for, it is this I choose." And He will gladly give it to you.
--- Andrew Murray
Absolute Surrender (The Colportage Library)

The Church is an organism that grows best in an alien society.
--- C. Stacey Woods
The Enduring Revolution

... from here, there and everywhere

The Imitation Of Christ
     Thomas A Kempis

     Book Three - Internal Consolation

     The Fifty-Seventh Chapter / A Man Should Not Be Too Downcast When He Falls Into Defects


     MY CHILD, patience and humility in adversity are more pleasing to Me than much consolation and devotion when things are going well.

     Why are you saddened by some little thing said against you? Even if it had been more you ought not to have been affected. But now let it pass. It is not the first, nor is it anything new, and if you live long it will not be the last.

     You are manly enough so long as you meet no opposition. You give good advice to others, and you know how to strengthen them with words, but when unexpected tribulation comes to your door, you fail both in counsel and in strength. Consider your great weakness, then, which you experience so often in small matters. Yet when these and like trials happen, they happen for your good.

     Put it out of your heart as best you know how, and if it has touched you, still do not let it cast you down or confuse you for long. Bear it patiently at least, if you cannot bear it cheerfully. Even though you bear it unwillingly, and are indignant at it, restrain yourself and let no ill-ordered words pass your lips at which the weak might be scandalized. The storm that is now aroused will soon be quieted and your inward grief will be sweetened by returning grace. “I yet live,” says the Lord, “ready to help you and to console you more and more, if you trust in Me and call devoutly upon Me.”

     Remain tranquil and prepare to bear still greater trials. All is not lost even though you be troubled oftener or tempted more grievously. You are a man, not God. You are flesh, not an angel. How can you possibly expect to remain always in the same state of virtue when the angels in heaven and the first man in paradise failed to do so? I am He Who rescues the afflicted and brings to My divinity those who know their own weakness.

     The Disciple

     Blessed be Your words, O Lord, sweeter to my mouth than honey and the honeycomb. What would I do in such great trials and anxieties, if You did not strengthen me with Your holy words? If I may but attain to the haven of salvation, what does it matter what or how much I suffer? Grant me a good end. Grant me a happy passage out of this world. Remember me, my God, and lead me by the right way into Your kingdom.

The Imitation Of Christ

Andrew Murray's Absolute Surrender
     Practical religion. The Christian life

     What is it that keeps us from trusting Him perfectly?

     Many a one says: "I believe what you say, but there is one difficulty. If my trust were perfect and always abiding, all would come right, for I know God will honor trust. But how am I to get that trust?"

     My answer is: "By the death of self. The great hindrance to trust is self-effort. So long as you have got your own wisdom and thoughts and strength, you cannot fully trust God. But when God breaks you down, when everything begins to grow dim before your eyes, and you see that you understand nothing, then God is coming near, and if you will bow down in nothingness and wait upon God, He will become all."

     As long as we are something, God cannot be all, and His omnipotence cannot do its full work. That is the beginning of faith--utter despair of self, a ceasing from man and everything on earth, and finding our hope in God alone.

     Faith Is Rest

     And then, next, we must understand that faith is rest.

     In the beginning of the faith-life, faith is struggling; but as long as faith is struggling, faith has not attained its strength. But when faith in its struggling gets to the end of itself, and just throws itself upon God and rests on Him, then come joy and victory.

     Perhaps I can make it plainer if I tell the story of how the Keswick Convention began. Canon Battersby was an evangelical clergyman of the Church of England for more than twenty years, a man of deep and tender godliness, but he had not the consciousness of rest and victory over sin, and often was deeply sad at the thought of stumbling and failure and sin. When he heard about the possibility of victory, he felt it was desirable, but it was as if he could not attain it. On one occasion, he heard an address on "Rest and Faith" from the story of the nobleman who came from Capernaum to Cana to ask Christ to heal his child. In the address it was shown that the nobleman believed that Christ could help him in a general way, but he came to Jesus a good deal by way of an experiment. He hoped Christ would help him, but he had not any assurance of that help. But what happened? When Christ said to him: "Go thy way, for thy child liveth," that man believed the word that Jesus spoke; he rested in that word. He had no proof that his child was well again, and he had to walk back seven hours' journey to Capernaum. He walked back, and on the way met his servant, and got the first news that the child was well, that at one o'clock on the afternoon of the previous day, at the very time that Jesus spoke to him, the fever left the child. That father rested upon the word of Jesus and His work, and he went down to Capernaum and found his child well; and he praised God, and became with his whole house a believer and disciple of Jesus.

     Oh, friends, that is faith! When God comes to me with the promise of His keeping, and I have nothing on earth to trust in, I say to God:

     "Thy word is enough; kept by the power of God." That is faith, that is rest.

     When Canon Battersby heard that address, he went home that night, and in the darkness of the night found rest. He rested on the word of Jesus. And the next Morning, in the streets of Oxford, he said to a friend: "I have found it!" Then he went and told others, and asked that the Keswick Convention might be begun, and those at the convention with himself should testify simply what God had done.

     It is a great thing when a man comes to rest on God's almighty power for every moment of his life, in prospect of temptations to temper and haste and anger and unlovingness and pride and sin. It is a great thing in prospect of these to enter into a covenant with the omnipotent Jehovah, not on account of anything that any man says, or of anything that my heart feels, but on the strength of the Word of God: "Kept by the power of God through faith."

     Oh, let us say to God that we are going to test Him to the very uttermost. Let us say: We ask Thee for nothing more than Thou canst give, but we want nothing less. Let us say: My God, let my life be a proof of what the omnipotent God can do. Let these be the two dispositions of our souls every day--deep helplessness, and simple, childlike rest.

Absolute Surrender (The Colportage Library)

Proverbs 16:13-15
     by D.H. Stern

13     The king should delight in righteous lips,
and he should love someone who speaks what is right.
14     The king’s anger is a herald of death,
and one who is wise will appease it.
15     When the king’s face brightens, it means life;
his favor is like the clouds that bring spring rain.

Complete Jewish Bible : An English Version of the Tanakh (Old Testament) and B'Rit Hadashah (New Testament)

My Utmost For The Highest
     A Daily Devotional by Oswald Chambers

                Liberty on the abyss of the Gospel

     Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. --- Gal. 5:1.

     A spiritually minded man will never come to you with the demand—‘Believe this and that’; but with the demand that you square your life with the standards of Jesus. We are not asked to believe the Bible, but to believe the One Whom the Bible reveals (cf. John 5:39–40). We are called to present liberty of conscience, not liberty of view. If we are free with the liberty of Christ, others will be brought into that same liberty—the liberty of realizing the dominance of Jesus Christ.

     Always keep your life measured by the standards of Jesus. Bow your neck to His yoke alone, and to no other yoke whatever; and be careful to see that you never bind a yoke on others that is not placed by Jesus Christ. It takes God a long time to get us out of the way of thinking that unless everyone sees as we do, they must be wrong. That is never God’s view. There is only one liberty, the liberty of Jesus at work in our conscience enabling us to do what is right.

     Don’t get impatient, remember how God dealt with you—with patience and with gentleness; but never water down the truth of God. Let it have its way and never apologize for it. Jesus said, ‘Go and make disciples,’ not—make converts to your opinions.

My Utmost for His Highest: Quality Paperback Edition

     the Poetry of RS Thomas


And in the book I read:
God is love. But lifting
my head, I do not find it
so. Shall I return
to my book and between
print, wander an air
heavy with the scent
of this one word? Or not trust
language, only the blows that
life gives me, wearing them
like those red tokens with which
an agreement is sealed?

Selected poems, 1946-1968

Swimming In The Sea of Talmud
     Kiddushin 45b


     Harry Truman had a famous sign on his desk in the White House Oval Office: "The Buck Stops Here." He was reminding himself, and those who worked for the people, that if something went wrong, they were responsible. There were to be no excuses, no looking for a scapegoat, no shifting of blame.

     That willingness to shoulder responsibility is becoming rarer in our society. More and more, we see a trend emerging of people looking for an excuse for their misconduct. A most extreme example was the so-called "Twinkie Defense," where a man who murdered two San Francisco politicians blamed his actions on "junk food," which had caused him to lose control of himself. This approach of "I'm not to blame" is all around us. A drunk driver blames alcoholism for the death of the pedestrian he ran down. A pedophile blames his crimes on his father, who sexually abused him when he was a child. A mugger points a finger at poverty and the society that forced him into a life of crime. A gunman opens fire in a crowded train, and his lawyers explain that the rage came because their client was a victim of racism. A woman sustains serious burns when she spills coffee on herself in a restaurant and sues the fast-food chain, claiming that they made the drink too hot. A rapist blames the victim, saying she was "asking for it."

     Imagine a defendant standing up in court and just pleading guilty. "Your honor, I did it. I know I was wrong. I did a terrible thing. I feel sick about what I've done, and about the suffering that I've caused. I'm here to admit my guilt, to take responsibility for my actions, and to say that I am deeply, deeply sorry. I'm ready to accept my punishment." How absurd such a statement sounds in our society. And how refreshing.

     The Rabbis teach us that there is no agent for wrongdoing, that we should not look for someone else to blame: "You know right from wrong. You know that there are consequences to your actions. Take responsibility for what you do!" Three times a day in the Amidah, a traditional Jew "confesses" his or her sins: "Forgive us, our Father, for we have sinned; pardon us, our King, for we have transgressed." These lines are punctuated by many people with two symbolic taps on the breast, over the heart. They are a daily reminder that we should not waste our time looking for excuses or other people to blame for what we ourselves have done. There is no agent for wrongdoing; we are responsible.

     A person does not prepare a meal to ruin it.

     Text / A certain man said, "[Let our daughter be married] to my relative," while she said, "To my relative." She pressured him until he agreed to her relative. When they were eating and drinking, his relative went to the roof and married her. Abaye said: "It is written: 'The remnant of Israel shall do no wrong and speak no falsehood'
[Zephaniah 3:13]." Rava said: "It is presumed that a person does not prepare a meal to ruin it." Where do they differ? They differ about a case where one did not prepare.

     Context / The Jewish wedding of today is actually two ceremonies. In the days of the Talmud, these two ceremonies were separated by a period of time, often a year. In the first ceremony, Kiddushin or Erusin, often called "betrothal," the groom handed the bride an object of value (like a ring) and said to her, in the presence of two witnesses: "Behold, you are consecrated to me by this ring in accordance with the law of Moses and Israel." Two blessings were also recited over a cup of wine. The couple was then consecrated to each other, though cohabitation was not yet allowed. At a later date, the Nissuin or ḥuppah took place. At this time, seven blessings were recited over a cup of wine and the marriage was consummated. Probably in the twelfth century, the two ceremonies were joined together as one (as they are today) under the ḥuppah. The perilous conditions of medieval Jews is usually given as the cause for this change. In addition, it likely was difficult for the couple to have all the stringencies of marriage with none of the benefits. Thus, the difficulty of waiting a year was alleviated by bringing the two ceremonies together under the ḥuppah. The Jewish wedding festivities are traditionally a week-long celebration. Each day, the Shevah Berakhot, the Seven Blessings of the original ḥuppah, are repeated at a festive meal.

     A father (the "certain man") and mother argue. Each says: "Let our daughter be married to my relative!" The father finally agrees to allow his daughter to be married to the wife's relative. The festive wedding banquet is prepared, but before the actual betrothal can take place (at the preliminary festivities), the father's relative grabs the bride-to-be, takes her up to the roof and marries her there. We can imagine how the mother would feel; how would the father, who had promised that his daughter could marry the mother's relative, react?

     Abaye and Rava agree that the father would disapprove of what has happened, but their reason for the disapproval differs. Abaye, basing himself on a verse from the prophet Zephaniah ("The remnant of Israel shall do no wrong and speak no falsehood") assumes that the father was not lying when he made the promise to his wife. He had indeed agreed to have his daughter married to the mother's relative and is now upset at his own relative's actions. Rava also thinks that the father would be upset, but not because of Abaye's moral concerns. Rava takes a much more cold, practical approach: A person is not going to spend a large amount of money on a wedding banquet if he knows that the wedding would not take place as planned. It is because of this monetary consideration that Rava holds that we should believe the father when he claims that he had nothing to do with his relative's plan to marry the daughter and elope.

     Is there any practical difference between the opinions of Abaye and Rava? ("Where do they differ?") Yes, but only in a situation where no wedding feast had been prepared. In such a case, according to Abaye, the father would still be upset, since "the remnant of Israel shall … speak no falsehood," i.e., Jews do not lie, and he had intended the daughter to marry her relative. Both the father and the mother would be upset, and even though his relative was deceptive, the mother has no complaint against the father. Rava, however, believes that the father's main concern was the money. Where no meal had been prepared and no money spent, the father would have no defense against his wife's suspicion of his complicity.

Swimming in the Sea of Talmud: Lessons for Everyday Living

Gideon, Jephthah and Samson
     Teacher's Commentary

     The power of the enemy was totally broken, and Gideon himself executed their leaders. Gideon dealt with jealousy and resentment in a wise and humble way (Judges 8:1–3). And, when Gideon was invited to establish a hereditary monarchy, he rejected the throne insisting that "the Lord will rule over you" (Judges 8:23).

     But Gideon's successes did corrupt him, in two ways. First, he made a golden ephod. In Israel an ephod was a priestly garment associated with worship. This act of Gideon suggests that he took for himself a priestly role which was to be limited to the family of Aaron. And he left his ephod in Ophrah, not at the tabernacle where alone God was to be worshiped. We read that, "all Israel prostituted themselves by worshiping it [the ephod] there, and it became a snare to Gideon and his family."

     Second, while Gideon refused the title of king, he seems to have viewed himself as such a ruler. How do we know? Gideon named one of his sons Abimelech. The name means abi [my father] melech [is king].

     Tragically, Gideon's attitude seems to have been transmitted to Abimelech.

     This young man killed all the other sons of Gideon, and set himself up for a time as king. He and his coconspirators did not survive long. But one wonders how much of his ambition reflects the hidden attitude of his father.

     Yet during Gideon's lifetime his area of Israel did worship the Lord. And on Gideon's death the people turned again to worshiping the Baals.

     Jephthah: Judges 10:6–12:7 / Jephthah illustrates the fact that being a social outcast need not indicate the absence of a true faith in God. And that a person with an unhappy childhood need not grow up to be unsuccessful.

     Jephthah, born out of wedlock, was rejected and driven away by his brothers even though they apparently grew up together. How difficult this family climate must have been for young Jephthah.

     Outcast, Jephthah developed into the leader of a small military community. Later when his homeland was threatened by the Ammonites, the elders invited Jephthah to return and be their commander. No one had protected his rights when he had been driven out by his family. But now, in danger, his people wanted to use his skills.

     It may have been surprising, when the delegation arrived, to hear this outcast speaking so familiarly of the Lord (Judges 11:9), as though they were closely acquainted. Apparently Jephthah had not rejected the God of the people and family who had rejected him!

     Jephthah's letter to the Ammonite king was based on sacred history. He was well acquainted with the history of his people as well as God.

     Most attention is usually focused on the question of whether Jephthah, who vowed to sacrifice to the Lord "whatever comes out of the door of my house to meet me when I return in triumph" (Judges 11:31), actually did sacrifice the daughter who ran to meet him.

     The answer is, no, he did not. How do we know he did not offer her as a human sacrifice? First, such sacrifice is forbidden in God's Law.

     (Lev. 18:21; 20:2–5; Deut. 12:31; 18:10). Jephthah's letter to the Ammonites shows he was acquainted with sacred history, and would have known this basic worship principle. Second, no priest would have officiated at such a sacrifice, and Jephthah was not qualified by family line to serve as a priest. Third, there is an alternative established in Old Testament Law. A person or thing might be dedicated to the Lord for a lifetime of service (cf. Ex. 20:9; 1 Sam. 1:28; Luke 2:36–37). Fourth, the text indicates this in that the daughter asked for time to weep "because I will never marry" (Judges 11:37). She was not looking forward to death, but to a celibate life dedicated to serving the Lord.

     For all these reasons, we can be confident that Jephthah did not kill his daughter or offer her as a burnt offering in thanksgiving for Israel's victory over the Ammonites.

     Samson: Judges 13:1–16:31 / Samson, unlike Jephthah, began life with every advantage. His birth was announced by an angel, and he was given a godly upbringing by loving parents. In fact, from birth Samson was set apart to God. He was to live under the most special of all Old Testament vows, that of a Nazarite (Numbers 6).

     Yet scanning the story of Samson reveals a tragic story. Though the Lord blessed young Samson (Judges 13:24), this youth with every spiritual advantage was a spiritual failure.

     First, Samson was dominated by sensual desire. That passion led Samson to desire a Philistine woman as a wife, which was strictly forbidden by God's Law. In addition, that passion led him to liaisons with prostitutes, like the one with the woman Delilah who betrayed him for money.

     Second, Samson was motivated by pride and the passion for revenge. He was more moved by anger at personal affronts to strike out at the Philistines than he was moved by the suffering of the people he was supposed to lead (Judges 14:19–20; 15:7–8; 16:28).

     Third, Samson led Israel for 20 years "in the days of the Philistines" (Judges 15:20). Samson, unlike other judges who gave their generations rest from their enemies, never threw off the enemy yoke. During his rule the Philistines still dominated Israel.

The Teacher's Commentary

The Temple
     Judaism in the Land of Israel

     One phenomenon related to and underscoring the centrality of the land of Israel, one that exercised a strong attraction for Jews everywhere, was the Temple in Jerusalem. Other Jewish temples existed—one at Elephantine in Egypt and later one in Leontopolis, also in Egypt—but the sanctuary in Jerusalem held a special place. Ezra 6:13–18 dates the completion and dedication of the Second Temple to the sixth year of King Darius (515 B.C.E.); that building complex (with repairs) apparently lasted until 20 B.C.E. when King Herod began completely rebuilding it on a grander scale. Herod’s temple was to be destroyed with the city of Jerusalem in 70 C.E.

     If the Second Temple followed the structural plan of Solomon’s temple (see
1 Kings 6:2–6), the building itself would have had three rooms—the nave or vestibule, the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies—along with several altars. These would have been set within at least two large courts and would have been surrounded by other structures required for the personnel and materials of sacrificial worship and other sanctuary-related activities. The Herodian temple area (see Josephus, Ant. 15.391–420; Ag. Ap. 2.102–4) included four courts with ever greater degrees of holiness: one accessible to all, including non-Jews, one for all Jews including women, one for Jewish men, and one for priests only. At various places there were marble columns and porticoes with steps and walls between enclosures. Only the high priest, on the Day of Atonement, could enter the Holy of Holies, the innermost room of the Temple itself.

     Because of the central place occupied by the Temple in Jerusalem, the priests who served there exercised important functions in society, and some of them became its leading officials. According to the scriptural genealogies and laws, all qualified males of the tribe of Levi were clergy, but only the members of this tribe stemming from Aaron’s line were priests (
Num. 8:5–26; see also Exod. 28:1–3; 29:1–37). The Levites performed other duties at the sanctuary and served the priests, the sons of Aaron (Num. 18:1–7; 4:46–49). At the head of the body of priests stood the high priest, who, in the early centuries of the Second Temple period, came from the family of Joshua/Jeshua (the first high priest of the Second Temple) and held the post in hereditary succession (Neh. 12:10–11). The high priest seems at times to have exercised political power as well, serving as the chief national official in the absence of a governor. Those Hasmoneans who held the high-priestly office from 152 until the Roman conquest in 63 B.C.E. were not only heads of the cultic establishment but also chiefs of state and commanders of the army. During the years of Roman rule and before the defeat and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E., the high priests continued to be influential leaders in dealing both with Jewish and Roman officials.

     There were too many priests to allow all of them to serve at the Temple complex at the same time.
1 Chronicles 24:7–18 contains a list dividing the priests into twenty-four groups, one of which served at the Temple for a week, after which it was replaced by the next group on the list (Josephus, Ant. 7.365–66; Ag. Ap. 2.108). In this system, therefore, most of these divisions of priests were on duty at the Temple for only two weeks each year (twenty-four groups each serving two weeks would fill forty-eight weeks so that four would have to serve a third week) and at the great festivals when more of them were needed because of the large numbers of people bringing offerings. The Levites may have been organized in a similar way; from among their ranks came the singers and gatekeepers at the Temple
1 Chronicles 25–26; Ant. 7.367).

     Worship at the Temple followed and built upon the prescriptions in the Mosaic Law. Animal and grain offerings with their libations were regularly made there. Each day, as the Law prescribed, there were two sacrifices of a lamb with accompanying grain and liquid offerings—the Morning and Evening sacrifices described in
Exod. 29:38–42; Num. 28:3–8 (see 1 Chron. 16:40; 2 Chron. 8:11; 31:3). There were other mandated sacrifices for the Sabbaths, the first of each month, and for the festivals (Numbers 28–29), and passages such as Leviticus 1–7 describe the many kinds of sacrifice—their contents, who offers them, and the occasions for them. The priests were the ones who performed the procedures carried out at the altar
Num. 18:1–7; 1 Chron. 6:49–53), and for their support priests received prescribed parts of offerings other than the whole burnt offering (e.g., Lev. 2:3, 10; 5:13; 6:16–18, 26, 29; 7:6–10, 14, 31–36; Num. 18:8–20) as well as other gifts.

     The festivals constituted an important if less frequent part of worship at the Temple in Jerusalem. The Law of Moses commanded that an Israelite male was to present himself before the Lord three times each year: at the Festival of Unleavened Bread, the Festival of Weeks, and the Festival of Tabernacles (
Exod. 23:14–17; 34:18–24; Deut. 16:1–17). It came to be understood that the Jerusalem Temple was the place where one appeared before YHWH; as a result, thousands of Jews would travel to Jerusalem to celebrate those holidays, whether from the land or the Diaspora. Deuteronomy also stipulated that Passover be held at the sanctuary; consequently, large crowds converged on Jerusalem on the prescribed date (1/14); they could remain there for the Festival of Unleavened Bread, which followed immediately (from 1/15 to 1/21). The Day of Atonement (7/10) involved elaborate rites at the Temple, including several trips in and out of the Holy of Holies by the high priest (Leviticus 16). During Hasmonean times another Temple-related festival—Hanukkah—was added to the list in the Hebrew Bible; it celebrated and remembered the reconsecration of the Temple in 164 B.C.E. after it had been defiled.

     Worship at the Temple also involved music. There are references in the literature to the singing of the Levites, with the books of
Chronicles being especially rich in passages relating to this levitical function. They present the Levites as singers at the time of David and his royal successors, but these books may reflect more of the situation in Second Temple times when they were compiled. In 1 Chron. 6:31–48 David appoints Levites to provide music at the house of the Lord; among them are Asaph and Kohath, whose names are found in the titles of some Psalms (sons of Korah: Psalms 42, 44–49, 84–85, 87–88; Asaph: Psalms 50, 73–83; in 1 Chron. 16:7–36 Asaph and his kin sing from Psalms 105, 95, and 106; see also 2 Chron. 29:25–30; 35:15). The king ordered the singers and instrumentalists to perform at the times of sacrifice, Sabbaths, and festivals
1 Chron. 23:30–31). When Jews presented their Passover offerings, the Levites sang the Hallel Psalms
Psalms 113–18; m. Pesaḥ. 5:7).

     The large costs incurred in connection with the forms of worship at the Temple and the maintenance of the structures were met through different means. As noted, support for the priests, who had no land to supply them with their needs, came from the parts of sacrifices allotted to them by the Law, and they also received one of the tithes mentioned in the Scriptures. The Law provided that the Levites, who also lacked land, should receive tithes from the Israelites (cf.
Deut. 14:28–29), and they in turn were to give a tithe from their tithe to the priests (Num. 18:21–32). Tobit 1:6–7 gives a summary of the firstfruits contributions and the clerically related payments as the protagonist describes his religious practice before he was exiled from his land: “I would hurry off to Jerusalem with the firstfruits of the crops and the firstlings of the flock, the tithes of the cattle, and the first shearings of the sheep. I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar; likewise the tenth of the grain, wine, olive oil, pomegranates, figs, and the rest of the fruits to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem.”

     In addition to these means of support for the clergy, the sources disclose other revenues. First, several foreign monarchs who ruled Judea made contributions to the Temple. This is attested for three Persian kings (
Ezra 6:1–5 [Cyrus], 8–10 [Darius I]; 7:15–23 [Artaxerxes I]) and for the Seleucid rulers Antiochus III (Josephus, Ant. 12.138–44) and Seleucus IV (2 Macc. 3:2–3; cf. 1 Macc. 10:40). The passage from 2 Maccabees claims: “it came about that the kings themselves honored the place and glorified the temple with the finest presents, even to the extent that King Seleucus of Asia defrayed from his own revenues all the expenses connected with the service of the sacrifices.” Ezekiel had envisaged that the prince in Jerusalem would pay for the sacrifices on holidays and Sabbaths (45:17; see also 45:22–46:15), but in reality it was foreign rulers who did so. Second, the Jewish populace worldwide supported the Temple through a tax. Exodus 30:11–16 records an imposition of one-half shekel that each Israelite male twenty years of age and above was to pay as an atonement; YHWH ordered Moses: “You shall take the atonement money from the Israelites and shall designate it for the service of the tent of meeting” (30:16; 38:25–28, where it is apparently for construction of the tabernacle; see also 2 Chron. 24:4–14; Josephus, Ant. 3.194–96). Exodus attaches the payment to a census Moses was to take and does not say how often the Israelites were supposed to pay it. In the time of Nehemiah the people not only pledged to bring wood for the offerings at the Temple, the firsts of the crops and herds, and the tithes (10:34–39), but also obligated themselves to pay an annual tax of one-third of a shekel “for the service of the house of our God: for the rows of bread, the regular grain offering, the regular burnt offering, the Sabbaths, the new moons, the appointed festivals, the sacred donations, and the sin offerings to make atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God” (Neh. 10:32–33). The reader does not learn why the amount of this levy differed from the one in Exodus 30, but later one finds references in the sources to an annual half-shekel payment
(see Matt. 17:24–27; m. Šeqal. 4:1–5)—one that Josephus mentions several times and indicates that it applied to Jews in the Diaspora as well as those in the land (Ag. Ap. 2.77; Ant. 16.163; 18.312–13 [Babylon]; see Philo, Spec. Leg. 1.76–78). After Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 C.E., the Romans redirected the tax monies to the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome (J.W. 7.218). It is interesting that a text from Qumran decrees that the tax be paid only once in a person’s lifetime (4Q159 1 ii 6–7)—perhaps a polemical view based on Exod. 30:11–16.

The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism

Take Heart
     May 6

     Is there any God besides me? --- Isaiah 44:8.

     When we deny transcendence, we cease to have a God who is a person. Wings of the Morning, The (The Morrison Classic Sermon Series) And the one thing that you blot out when you identify the Creator with his creatures is a God who will answer when his children speak. Sooner or later, all of us need the living God. In such hours, if we thought that there was no one on the throne who cared or knew, the burdens and the cares of life would grow insufferable, and we would be plunged into darkness.

     But there cannot be a living God if God is only the Spirit of the universe. You can adore creation, but you cannot cry to it, “Father, I have sinned.” We do not want to find ourselves divine in the great moments when we are most ourselves. We want to find the living God above us, who is ready to hear us when we call.

     Being what we are, God is truly nearest when he is seated on his throne in heaven. I am not always nearest those around me except in a shallow and physical sense. Those who are nearest may be a thousand miles off, if they are the ones who love and understand me. And so with God in the altitude of heaven—if he knows and cares and understands and pities, then he is far nearer to my heart than if he were by my side. If his presence is interfused with setting suns, you seem to bring him under my very gaze. But if that is all—if he is nowhere else—if you must search for him beyond the universe in vain, then the divine is brought within our hail only to be banished far away. It is not things that can enter through the portals of the heart. It is personality, love, power. It is the influence of a living spirit. And all these you inevitably forfeit when you believe only in God’s immanence; it robs the heart of the God for whom it craves, while it seems to bring him very near.

     When you lose the personality of God, you lose the individuality of human beings. Faced by a sovereign and transcendent God, men and women were strengthened to do and to endure. When you lose that sense of the high God and merge him in the movement of his world you lose the presence that is so needed to draw us to our best. Slip the anchor of the living God, and you slip the anchor of accountability. And as that conception strengthens, the meaning of personality decays, and people forget much of their noblest heritage in Christ.
--- George H. Morrison

Take Heart: Daily Devotions with the Church's Great Preachers

On This Day
     Sacked Again  May 6

     In 1523 Giulio de’ Medici became Pope Clement VII. Martin Luther was causing problems at the time; but portents soon appeared of greater distresses to come. On April 8, 1527, as Clement blessed a crowd of 10,000, a fanatic in leather loincloth mounted a nearby statue, shouting, “Thou bastard of Sodom! For thy sins Rome shall be destroyed. Repent and turn thee!” Not quite a month later, on fog-shrouded May 6, 1527, a vast army of barbarians burst through Rome’s walls and poured into the city. They had been sent—but were no longer controlled—by Emperor Charles V. By the time the troops reached Rome, they were hungry, unpaid, shoeless, reduced to tatters, and rabid.

     The defending Roman and Swiss guards were annihilated. The barbarians pillaged, plundered, and burned with abandon. They entered hospitals and orphanages, slaughtering the occupants. Women of every age were attacked; nuns were herded into bordellos; priests were molested. The banks and treasuries were looted, the rich flogged until they turned over their last coin. Fingernails were ripped out one by one. Children were flung from high windows. Tombs were plundered, churches stripped, libraries and archives burned. Priceless manuscripts became bedding for horses. Drunken soldiers strutted around in papal garments, parodying holy rites. Within a week, 2,000 bodies were floating in the Tiber and nearly 10,000 more awaited burial. Multitudes perished. Rats and dogs eviscerated the bloating, fetid corpses that piled up in the city.

     Pope Clement had barely made it into the safety of the Castle of St. Angelo, and from its towers he helplessly watched the ravaging of his city. “Why did you take me from the womb?” he wailed. “Would that I had been consumed.”

     As news spread over Europe, Protestants interpreted the sack of Rome as divine retribution, and even some Catholics agreed. “We who should have been the salt of the earth decayed until we were good for nothing,” wrote Cardinal Cajetan, Luther’s contestant at Augsburg. “Everyone is convinced that all this has happened as a judgment of God on the great tyranny and disorders of the papal court.”

     My eyes are red from crying, my stomach is in knots, and I feel sick all over. My people are being wiped out, and children lie helpless in the streets of the city. Those who pass by shake their heads and sneer As they make fun and shout, “What a lovely city you were, the happiest on earth, but look at you now!”
--- Lamentations 2:11,15.

On This Day 365 Amazing And Inspiring Stories About Saints, Martyrs And Heroes

Morning and Evening
     Daily Readings / CHARLES H. SPURGEON

          Morning - May 6

     “We dwell in him.”
1 John 4:13.

     Do you want a house for your soul? Do you ask, “What is the purchase?” It is something less than proud human nature will like to give. It is without money and without price. Ah! you would like to pay a respectable rent! You would love to do something to win Christ? Then you cannot have the house, for it is “without price.” Will you take my Master’s house on a lease for all eternity, with nothing to pay for it, nothing but the ground-rent of loving and serving him for ever? Will you take Jesus and “dwell in him?” See, this house is furnished with all you want, it is filled with riches more than you will spend as long as you live. Here you can have intimate communion with Christ and feast on his love; here are tables well-stored with food for you to live on for ever; in it, when weary, you can find rest with Jesus; and from it you can look out and see heaven itself. Will you have the house? Ah! if you are houseless, you will say, “I should like to have the house; but may I have it?” Yes; there is the key—the key is, “Come to Jesus.” “But,” you say, “I am too shabby for such a house.” Never mind; there are garments inside. If you feel guilty and condemned, come; and though the house is too good for you, Christ will make you good enough for the house by-and-by. He will wash you and cleanse you, and you will yet be able to sing, “We dwell in him.” Believer: thrice happy art thou to have such a dwelling-place! Greatly privileged thou art, for thou hast a “strong habitation” in which thou art ever safe. And “dwelling in him,” thou hast not only a perfect and secure house, but an everlasting one. When this world shall have melted like a dream, our house shall live, and stand more imperishable than marble, more solid than granite, self-existent as God, for it is God himself—“We dwell in him.”

          Evening - May 6

     “All the days of my appointed time will I wait.”
Job 14:14.

     A little stay on earth will make heaven more heavenly. Nothing makes rest so sweet as toil; nothing renders security so pleasant as exposure to alarms. The bitter quassia cups of earth will give a relish to the new wine which sparkles in the golden bowls of glory. Our battered armour and scarred countenances will render more illustrious our victory above, when we are welcomed to the seats of those who have overcome the world. We should not have full fellowship with Christ if we did not for awhile sojourn below, for he was baptized with a baptism of suffering among men, and we must be baptized with the same if we would share his kingdom. Fellowship with Christ is so honourable that the sorest sorrow is a light price by which to procure it. Another reason for our lingering here is for the good of others. We would not wish to enter heaven till our work is done, and it may be that we are yet ordained to minister light to souls benighted in the wilderness of sin. Our prolonged stay here is doubtless for God’s glory. A tried saint, like a well-cut diamond, glitters much in the King’s crown. Nothing reflects so much honour on a workman as a protracted and severe trial of his work, and its triumphant endurance of the ordeal without giving way in any part. We are God’s workmanship, in whom he will be glorified by our afflictions. It is for the honour of Jesus that we endure the trial of our faith with sacred joy. Let each man surrender his own longings to the glory of Jesus, and feel, “If my lying in the dust would elevate my Lord by so much as an inch, let me still lie among the pots of earth. If to live on earth for ever would make my Lord more glorious, it should be my heaven to be shut out of heaven.” Our time is fixed and settled by eternal decree. Let us not be anxious about it, but wait with patience till the gates of pearl shall open.

Morning and Evening

Amazing Grace
     May 6


     English Words by Stuart K. Hine, 1899–1989

     Stuart K. Hine was born in 1899 in England. His parents were at that time worshipping with the Salvation Army, and dedicated him to God during a time when opposition was strong against those who proclaimed Christ.
     After serving in the Armed Forces, Mr. Hine was called to the mission field. For many years he served in Poland and Czechoslovakia. It was during missionary work in these countries that Mr. Hine composed many of the songs for which he’s well-known today.
     Stuart K. Hine died in 1989.

     Every day I will praise You and extol Your name for ever and ever. Great is the Lord and most worthy of praise; His greatness no one can fathom. (Psalm 145:2, 3)

     Today’s inspiring hymn of praise and adoration reminds us of God’s unlimited power and love in creation and redemption. Although written in the past century, the hymn has become familiar to congregations just since the close of World War II. It especially became an international favorite after the Billy Graham Evangelistic Team used it in their crusades during the late 1940’s and early 1950’s.

     The original text was written by a Swedish pastor, Carl Boberg, in 1886. While visiting a beautiful country estate, Boberg was caught in a sudden thunderstorm. The awesome and violent lightning and thunder quickly ended, leaving clear brilliant sunshine and the calm, sweet singing of the birds in the trees. Falling on his knees in awe and adoration of Almighty God, the pastor wrote nine stanzas of praise. Swedish congregations began to sing his lines to one of their old folk tunes. The text was later translated into German and Russian and ultimately into English by the Reverend S. K. Hine and his wife, English missionaries to the people of the Ukraine. When war broke out in 1939, it was necessary for the Hines to return to Britain, where Mr. Hine added the fourth stanza to this hymn. These four stanzas by Stuart Hine have since ministered and inspired God’s people worldwide:

     O Lord my God, when I in awesome wonder consider all the worlds Thy hands have made, I see the stars, I hear the rolling thunder, Thy pow’r thruout the universe displayed!

     When thru the woods and forest glades I wander and hear the birds sing sweetly in the trees, when I look down from lofty mountain grandeur and hear the brook and feel the gentle breeze.
     And when I think that God, His Son not sparing, sent Him to die, I scarce can take it in—That on the cross, my burden gladly bearing, He bled and died to take away my sin!
     When Christ shall come with shout of acclamation and take me home, what joy shall fill my heart! Then I shall bow in humble adoration and there proclaim, my God, how great Thou art!
     Refrain: Then sings my soul, my Savior God, to Thee; how great Thou art, how great Thou art! Then sings my soul, my Savior God, to Thee; how great Thou art, how great Thou art!

     For Today: Deuteronomy 3:24; Psalm 48:1; Isaiah 40:26, 28; Romans 1:20.

     Take time to think once again about the unfathomable greatness of God and His wonderful redeeming love for each of us.

Amazing Grace: 366 Inspiring Hymn Stories for Daily Devotions

De Servo Arbitrio “On the Enslaved Will” or The Bondage of the Will
     Martin Luther | (1483-1546)

     Sect. XVI. — NOR are you right in the use of this example; nor in condemning the discussion of this subject before the multitude, as useless — that God is in a beetle’s hole and even in a sink! For your thoughts concerning God are too human. I confess indeed, that there are certain fantastical preachers, who, not from any religion, or fear of God, but from a desire of vain-glory, or from a thirst after some novelty, or from impatience of silence, prate and trifle in the lightest manner. But such please neither God nor men, although they assert that God is in the Heaven of Heavens. But when there are grave and pious preachers, who teach in modest, pure, and sound words; they, without any danger, nay, unto much profit, speak on such a subject before the multitude.

     Is it not the duty of us all to teach, that the Son of God was in the womb of the Virgin, and proceeded forth from her belly? And in what does the human belly differ from any other unclean place? Who, moreover, may not describe it in filthy and shameless terms? But such persons we justly condemn; because, there are numberless pure words, in which we speak of that necessary subject, even with decency and grace. The body also of Christ Himself was human, like ours. Than which body, what is more filthy? But shall we, therefore, not say what Paul saith, that God dwelt in it bodily? (Col. ii. 9.) What is more unclean than death? What more horrible than hell? Yet the prophet glorieth that God was with him in death, and left him not, in hell. (Ps. xvi. 10, Ps. cxxxix. 8.).

     The pious mind, therefore, is not shocked at hearing that God was in death and in hell: each of which is more horrible, and more loathsome, than either a hole or a sink. Nay, since the Scripture testifies that God is every where, and fills all things, such a mind, not only says that He is in those places, but will, of necessity learn and know that He is there. Unless we are to suppose that if I should at any time be taken and cast into a prison or a sink, (which has happened to many saints,) I could not there call upon God, or believe that He was present with me, until I should come into some ornamented church. If you teach us that we are thus to trifle concerning God, and if you are thus offended at the places of His essential presence, by and by you will not even allow that He dwells with us in Heaven. Whereas, “the Heaven of Heavens cannot contain Him,” (1 Kings viii. 27.); or, they are not worthy. But, as I said before, you, according to your custom, thus maliciously point your sting at our cause, that you may disparage and render if hateful, because you find it stands against you insuperable, and invincible.

The Bondage of the Will   or   Christian Classics Ethereal Library

Unbelief | Num 14:1-5

s2-078 6-21-2015 | Brett Meador

Copy Caleb | Num 14:6-25

s2-079 6-28-2015 | Brett Meador

Num 13:1-33, 14:1-19

m2-077 7-01-2015 | Brett Meador

Peril of Presumption

Numbers 14:40-45
s2-080 7-05-2015 | Brett Meador

Numbers 14:20-45, 15:1-41

m2-078 7-08-2015 | Brett Meador

Faith Examined
s1-596 9-23-2012 | Brett Meador

Heb 11:1-6

m1-615 9-26-2012 | Brett Meador

Moses: A Model of Faith
Heb 11:24-29
s1-597 9-30-2012 | Brett Meador

Heb 11:7-29

m1-616 10-03-2012 | Brett Meador

"Even if" Faith Heb 11:35-40

s1-598 10-07-2012 | Brett Meador

Heb 11:30-40

m1-617 10-12-2012 | Brett Meador

The Christian Imagination
Loren Wilkinson
Regent College (Vancouver, BC)

Charitable Reading
Maxine Hancock
   Regent College (Vancouver, BC)

Vocation of the Artist
Dal Schindell
Regent College (Vancouver, BC)

German Pietism
Don Lewis
Regent College (Vancouver, BC)

Kingdom Transformation
Michael Pucci
Regent College (Vancouver, BC)

Biblical Exegesis
V. Philips Long
Regent College (Vancouver, BC)

from the City of David to Temple Mount

A World of Idols

T. Keller

The Gospel

T. Keller

Q&A 1 with Mark Dever

2014 Magnify Conference | Kevin DeYoung

Q&A 2 with Mark Dever

2014 Magnify Conference | Kevin DeYoung

Q&A 1 with Ligon Duncan

2015 Magnify Conference | Kevin DeYoung